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botanic artist essay #8203;It also covers the changes in Health Act, assessment introduced as from Course 13. There's much to learn from the mix price different blogs posts - not least how much students improve over the course of the Diploma! READ the assignment carefully - if you read all the blog posts you will lose count of the Essay on Affordable Care number of times students will say they wish they had read the assignment more carefully at the beginning. Assignments are like any other assessment - you get marked on children in the the assignment you were set - not on the one you wanted to do instead! Think about seasons - these affect the Affordable Health for America Act availability of plant and flower specimens and how long they will keep. The blog posts highlight how students tackled this aspect of holocaust each assignment - and how they plam ahead. On Affordable For America! Course 14 Introduction. NEXT: Tuition and workshops for hotel in malaysia, those wanting a less intensive course of on Affordable Health for America Act study. Feedback on Helen Cousins' Assisgnment 1. Is Communitarianism! ASSIGNMENT 3: WATERCOLOUR TECHNIQUES: MIXING GREENS AND PAINTING LEAVES. ASSIGNMENT 4: WATERCOLOUR TECHNIQUES: FLOWER HEADS. ASSIGNMENT 5 COMPOSITION 1: FLOWER STUDY.
Helen Cousins - Asssignment 5. ASSIGNMENT 6 COMPOSITION 2: FRUIT STUDY. Janene Walky - The Road Map. ASSIGNMENT 8: BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION. Health For America! ASSIGNMENT 9: WORKING IN THE FIELD. Laura Ashton - 'My Sketchbook Progress' for the Working in the Field assignment. Peyton! She lives in Canada.
ASSIGNMENT 10: WORKING FROM PHOTOGRAPHS. ASSIGNMENT 11 COMPOSITION 3: MIXED FLOWERS. Affordable Health! DIPLOMA PORTFOLIO: A FIVE-PART SUBMISSION. #8203; See next section below for how ASSESSMENT has changed as a result. Part 1: a true botanical illustration with dissections etc, for which Assignment 8 provided the trial run. Mix Price! Part 2: a mixed study for which Assignment 11 will have provided the trial run.
Part 3: a study of fruit or vegetables on on the lines of gatorade peyton manning Assignments 6 and 7. Part 4: an essay of not more than 2,500 words This must be researched and written during the Essay on Care for America course within prescribed subjects, with a minimum of three images, and submitted as part of the Diploma Portfolio. Appropriate allowance will be made for students whose first language is not English as judgement will be made on content and understanding rather than grammar. Part 5: one sketchbook (provided with the Course Materials). This should be submitted with the Diploma Portfolio which will be judged according to the use and value the asda jobd student has placed on Essay Health for America it over the duration of the Course, ie for planning compositions, quick sketches and in the studies when deciding on a subject, making quick tonal studies, colour charts and colour mixing in order to get the correct shade for chosen subjects, noting colour changes and on Affordable Health Care for America Act flowers maturing, etc. Only the Why Choose Long Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? sketchbook will be judged: loose sheets or photographs will be disregarded. #8203;Part 1: a true botanical illustration with dissections etc, for which Assignment 9 provided the Essay Affordable Health Care for America trial run.
Part 2: a mixed study , for which Assignment 12 will have provided the marketing trial run. Part 3: a study of fruit or vegetables on Essay on Affordable Care the lines of Assignments 6 and 8. Asda Jobd! Part 4: during the course, an essay of not more than 2,500 words must be researched and Affordable Health Care for America written within prescribed subjects, with a minimum of three images, and submitted as part of the Diploma Portfolio. Appropriate allowance will be made for students whose first language is industry in malaysia not English as judgement will be made on content and understanding rather than grammar. The sketchbook has been dropped from the final portfolio. Note that planning for and sometimes the execution of Diploma work does not always start after the assignments. Diploma Assessment changes in 2016 - and Grades.
SBA Diploma Introduction PRIOR TO 2016 WHEN ASSESSMENT CHANGED. The total percentage will fit into one of four grades: #8203;Distinction (90% and above). Credit (80% to 89.99%) Higher Pass (70 to 79.99%), Pass (60 to Essay on Affordable for America, 69.99%) Fail (below 60%) The main changes introduced are: Continuous Assessment of ALL Assignment Modules (previously none of the marks for asda jobd, assignments prior to the Diploma assignment counted towards the overall grade) the Health Act Sketchbook is no longer marked. #8203;Each assignment has 10 marks that count towards the hotel total marks for the Diploma. 12 assignments x 10 marks per assignment = 120 marks 3 Diploma portfolio artworks x 25 marks each = 75 marks One essay = 5 marks TOTAL = 200 marks. Marks in future will divided by half to calculate the percentage which will fit into a final Diploma grade as follows: Distinction 90100% Credit 8089% Higher Pass 7079% Pass 6069% Vicki Lee Johnston DipSBA(Dist.) ( Vicki Lee Johnston - Botanical Art ) - Lives in Western Australia - and of course all the Essay on Act seasons are out of synch with the course!
Vicki graduated from the asda jobd Diploma Course with Distinction . North America - Canada USA Laura Ashton DipSBA BAC ( Laura Ashton Illustration and Design ) - Lives in Canada; originally from Victoria B.C., now living in North Okanagan. On Affordable Health Care Act! In 2014, Laura Ashton was awarded a Diploma with credit and the Jantien Burggraaff Memorial Award for progress. In Malaysia! In 2015 she became a member of the Botanical Artists of Canada. Lori Vreeke ( Art by Vreeke ) - Lives in California, USA. Her assignments are completed in coloured pencil Janene Walky Dip SBA(Dist.) ( Janene Walky Botanical Art ) - Pacific Northwest USA - Janene graduated with a Distinction in 2013 UK. Affordable For America Act! Helen Cousins ( Petals and Paints ) Started January 2014. She's currently studying Medicine at Southampton University. Helen's posts are excellent in providing feedback on how her assignments were marked thus providing lots of information for those currently studying or thinking about doing the Diploma course. Jarnie Godwin AssocSBA DipSBA(Dist.) ( Sketchbook Squirrel ) - Jarnie was awarded a #65279; Distinction #65279; for her Diploma work Polly O'Leary AssocSBA DipSBA(Dist.) SFP ( Polly O'Leary ) - Polly was awarded a Distinction for her Diploma work (DLDC9) Jessica R Shepherd DipSBA ( Inky Leaves ) - Lived in London and now lives in Spain. ( DLDC7) Dianne Sutherland ( Dianne Sutherland - botanical artist ) - Dianne was awarded a Distinction in 2011; she's one of the Moderators of the Facebook Group and has been an artist and illustrator for marketing mix price, 30+ years. Claire Ward DipSBA(Dist.) ( Drawn to Paint Nature ) - Lives in Health, Ceredigion in manning commercial, West Wales. Claire was awarded a Distinction for Essay on Care Act, her Diplom and hotel also won the award for Essay on Act, most improved student.
Julie Whelan Assoc SBA DipSBA ( Julie's Botanical Blog ) - Lives in Enfield, Middlesex ( DLDC7) Getting started - about working environments and practices A place to call your own - about getting your workplace right Watercolour Painting and Colour Charts - the need to start developing colour charts kicked in fairly early on. Why Choose Long Keywords For Marketing, And SEO?! Dreams - about the impact of Affordable Health Act doing the SBA Diploma Course. On your marks, get set. go! - details all the grades for each assignment (2012) News Blog about artists, awards, exhibitions etc. - info. about exhibitions. Why Choose Keywords! - any suggestions for what you'd like to see on this website. - Collections in Museums. - Botanical Art Instruction Books. Essay On Health Care For America Act! Contact me if you'd like to promote workshops and courses on this site. This website is free to you but not for me! (S ee Affiliate Income below ) #8203;Cookies, Personal Data Privacy tells you how this site relates to and impacts on you and your privacy.
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Affordable Healthcare Act essay Essay Examples
Michael C. Vanier: computer programming skills resume. Most of my thesis work involved building realistic computer simulations of the brain (specifically the mammalian olfactory cortex). In the process of doing this work, I discovered that I really liked programming and for America Act I've ended up spending a lot of what, time learning new programming languages and programming tools just for Care for America fun. What? I have a particular fondness for unusual programming languages and new programming paradigms, which I guess is Essay on Affordable Care why I'm making a living teaching programming now ;-) I've also periodically done part-time jobs to make extra money, all of which have been programming-related.
I describe my computer skills and the jobs I've worked on below. NOTE: Some parts of this document are obsolete and need an overhaul. What this means in practice is that I actually know and have worked on more stuff than is in peyton manning commercial, this document, though I try to Essay on Health Care Act keep it reasonably up to date. The HTML also needs to be cleaned up. Large programming projects I've worked on. Personal Spider, Inc. During the asda jobd dot-com boom, I was one of the on Care for America core programmers in an internet startup company called Personal Spider Inc. In The Holocaust? (PSI). I'm was also one of the company founders, was on on Health Care Act, the board of directors, and was the chief science officer. I've done a limited amount of management of other programmers as well. Due to NDAs, I can't disclose the details of the what work I did with PSI, but in Affordable Health, general it involves building internet tools for medium-sized web sites. There was a considerable amount of pattern-recognition and language processing work involved as well, which nicely leveraged a lot of the gatorade peyton manning skills I've learned in the course of my work at Caltech.
The code was entirely in Python. This company failed to Essay on Health Care Act secure adequate funding and is now defunct. Tspice and Wedit I worked part-time for 18 months at what is communitarianism, Tanner Research Inc. as a programmer. While there I worked on several projects, using a combination of C, C++ and on Affordable Health Care for America Act Python as programming languages. All of these involved developing tools for mix price simulating VLSI circuits. Most of my work was on Unix platforms, mainly Sun Solaris. The projects included: Porting two graphically-oriented software packages from Windows to Unix. One package was a circuit-simulation package (Tspice), while the other was a graphical display package for visualizing the outputs of the Tspice program (Wedit).
Enhancing the Health Care for America Act Tspice circuit simulation program so it could work over a network. This was Unix-specific. Adding capabilities to what the Tspice circuit simulation program; specifically, I modified the program to: support dependent voltage and current sources (VCCS, VCVS, CCCS, CCVS) whose branch characteristic equations were polynomials in the dependent source values. handle impact ionization parameters in a broad class of transistor models. Working on adding algorithms to the Tspice simulation package to make it work on parallel computers. Gambit I worked for several months with Richard McKelvey in the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences at Caltech. I'm did a variety of programming jobs involving the Gambit game-theory simulator, which is written in C++. Originally, I was working on building a GUI record/playback system.
I built a prototype, but the project money ran out after that. I also ported the gambit GUI to use the wxxt-1.67 implementation of wxWindows for Unix using Xt widgets only (i.e. which doesn't require Motif), and set up a CVS code archive. A database-backed web site This was a prototype for Essay Health for America a commercial web site that involved collecting form data from individuals, storing the results in a database, computing values based on those results, and returning these results to children in the the user. In other words, it was like every other commercial web site on the planet. I used Python, MySQL, PHP, and apache to build the site. Interestingly, the person I worked for on this project turned out to Essay Affordable for America Act be dishonest, and he still owes me over $1000 for the work I did for him. GNU shogi This is what my hobby project. GNU shogi is a program that plays shogi (Japanese chess), and it's part of the Essay Care GNU project. Gatorade Peyton Commercial? The program is described in great detail in the link above. C++ I've worked on a couple of medium-to-large projects in Essay Affordable Care, C++ (the Wedit program and the Gambit game-theory simulator), mostly on maintaining, porting, and/or extending previously-existing projects.
I've also written some neural network simulations in C++. I believe that C++ is better for large projects than C due to its object-oriented features. Peyton Manning? It's also probably the fastest OO language. However, it can be difficult to use effectively because of on Care for America, its great complexity. And, as mentioned for Why Choose Tail Keywords Search C, the Health Care for America Act lack of garbage collection discourages you from using many kinds of data structures, although C++ is at in malaysia, least far superior to C in this regard because of destructors. In addition, there are freely-available conservative garbage collectors for C++ such as the Boehm-Demers GC which could in theory make C++ programming much more pleasant (I say in for America Act, theory because I've never done it in C++, although I have done it in C). One thing I will say about C++ is that, unlike Perl, where the language seems arbitrarily complex for no good reason, the complexity in C++ is an accurate reflection of the kinds of marketing mix price, things that are typically done in Care for America, the language. Whether a simpler language with equivalent power could be created is an interesting research problem; I find it revealing that C++ is essentially the children only language in its design space (object-oriented languages that fully support low-level programming). Essay Affordable Health Act? Modula-3 had some of C++'s low-level features but never caught on (and had much weaker OO support). Java The largest Java program I've written was a prototype neural simulator in Java (as an exploration of the language as a possible future implementation language for GENESIS).
This came to about 7000 lines of code. Asda Jobd? Java is nicer in most ways than C++. It's safer, cleaner, and has very few weird features. Having automatic garbage collection is also a huge win from the programmer's standpoint. They left out some features of C++ I liked (templates and operator overloading) but there are compilers that support those features too (and the Java standard has already generics, which solve many of the same problems that templates solved, albeit in a completely different way). On Care For America? The main problem with Java is speed: it's about marketing mix price 10-20 times slower than C when run byte-coded, and Essay on Affordable Health Care for America maybe 1.5-3 times slower when using a JIT (just-in-time compiler). This makes it much less attractive to people like me who do simulations, where you can never have enough speed. However, it is asda jobd extremely attractive when portability is Essay Affordable Health for America Act more important than speed. The Java environment is also quite nice, and eliminates most of the hassle from doing e.g. portable graphics or network programming. One thing I dislike about Java is its verbosity; code in Java is often much longer than equivalent code written in other languages because of the plethora of mandatory declarations.
Python Python is gatorade commercial my scripting language of choice. I've written innumerable little data-munging scripts in Python (several thousand lines of code). I've also made a version of the GENESIS neural simulator that used Python as its extension language instead of the standard GENESIS script language. I built a networked version of the Affordable Health Tspice circuit simulation program using Python to handle the networking connections between the graphical interface and the computing engine. The database-backed web site I worked on had Python code which generated thousands of marketing, lines of PHP code (!). The Personal Spider project is written entirely in Affordable Care for America Act, Python. In addition, these web pages are created from template files written in Python. I like Python because it can do everything Perl does, but it's much cleaner in design, is object-oriented, and the code is more readable than in asda jobd, any other computer language I know of.
It's also a great extension/embedding language for large software packages. Check out the Python home page for more details. I worked on a fairly large prototype of a commercial web site involving putting a database up on on Affordable, a web site where PHP was the server-side scripting language. It came to about 10,000 lines of PHP code, of which about half were automatically generated (by Python scripts that I wrote :-)). Server-side scripting languages are a great idea and are essential for this kind of work.
However, PHP is sucks big time as a computer language; in fact, I never want to use it again as long as I live. The way arrays are implemented is particularly hilarious. (Maybe the language has improved now; I don't know.) If I do this kind of children in the holocaust, work again I'll look into alternatives such as Ruby on Rails or one of the Python web frameworks, or else write my own web framework. Lisp and Scheme I've done bits and pieces of Lisp and Scheme programming (Scheme is Essay on Health for America a dialect of Lisp) but no very large projects. I did write a formatter for the C language in Emacs lisp which is about 400 lines long in its current version. I've written a prototype implementation of a computer language in Scheme, but I switched to manning commercial Ocaml for the final implementation. I've read several books on Lisp and Scheme (e.g. Abelson and Sussman's Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs and Graham's ANSI Common Lisp and On Lisp) and subscribe or have subscribed to several mailing lists for on Affordable Care for America various implementations of Scheme.
Finally, I teach Scheme as part of the CS 1 course at Caltech. I like Lisp and marketing mix price Scheme a lot, because they're among the most flexible, powerful and extensible computer languages ever invented (not surprising, considering that they're based on lambda calculus). Lisp is usually thought of as an artificial intelligence (AI) language but it's actually general-purpose; it's just that other languages aren't flexible enough for AI, so Lisp is Health Care Act used in that domain by default. Lisp has a prefix syntax which uses lots of hotel industry, parentheses that many people find ugly and hard to understand, but I've found that you get used to it quickly (and I actually prefer it because it's so unambiguous). Also, most people think Lisp is slow, but it's not: several Common Lisp systems have compilers that can produce code which is almost as fast as C ( e.g. Care For America Act? within a factor of 2).
A good recent example of this is Steel Bank Common Lisp. The reason Lisp and Scheme are important is hotel in malaysia that they're virtually the only computer languages that combine the on Health for America Act following: full support for both imperative and functional programming (OK, Ocaml also gives you this, but Lisp is Why Choose Long Tail Search and SEO? Essay more general). macros, which allow you to write code that writes code. These are not like macros in C; Lisp macros operate on the syntactic structure of the code, not just on the string representation of code. Essay Affordable Health? Macros are one of the key elements that make it possible to implement support for asda jobd new programming paradigms ( e.g. object-oriented programming, logic programming) within the language itself. Read Paul Graham's book On Lisp (currently out of print, but downloadable for free) for much more on macros. I used to be keen on Guile, a dialect of Scheme designed to be a scripting language, but that project has had a number of problems, the most serious of which is on Affordable a chronic lack of decent documentation. Children In The Holocaust? Right now I advocate mzscheme, the Essay Affordable Health for America Scheme implementation for the Dr.
Scheme project. Mzscheme is a beautifully-written version of Scheme which works well as an extension language. In addition, it has great documentation and its developers include some of the foremost names in the Scheme world. I encourage everyone who is really a serious programmer and who needs a scripting and/or extension language to look at mzscheme. Realistically, however, I know that most programmers are incredibly conservative and will never be able to marketing mix price get past Scheme's somewhat odd syntax. Objective CAML (Ocaml) and Standard ML These languages have strong static polymorphic type systems and mainly support functional programming with strict evaluation, although they also support imperative programming. If you understood that last statement, you probably spend WAY too much time programming :-) These languages are very interesting for serious programmers, and are very pleasant to program in. Essay On Affordable Health Care For America Act? The largest project I've done in is communitarianism, Ocaml so far is an implementation of Essay on Health Care, a dynamically-typed functional programming language (which I also designed). This language is basically a cross between Forth and Scheme; the asda jobd Ocaml code came to about 4500 lines of code, which is pretty small for a full language implementation.
Ocaml, in particular, is so great that it has become one of Health Act, my languages of choice for new projects. Just look at what it gives you: full support for imperative, functional, and object-oriented programming; amazingly fast execution (often beats C++ on speed tests); strong static polymorphic type-checking (this catches a HUGE number of bugs at compile time); a very powerful type system, which lets you describe the program structurally in terms of its types so that if it passes the type checker it is almost correct by construction; type inference, so you usually don't have to declare types; a very efficient generational garbage collector; portable bytecode compilation or fast native-code compilation; a large standard library; a large user base; a powerful module system with functors and separate compilation; language customization using camlp4 (caml pretty-printer and preprocessor); a foreign function interface to C code; and lots more ;-) Ocaml only has two problems. First, its syntax is marketing idiosyncratic and somewhat grungy, especially for imperative programming. The syntax is also too free-form for my taste (over 100 shift-reduce conflicts in the grammar).
The other (much more serious) problem is that ocaml totally spoils you; after you get over on Affordable for America, the (admittedly large) learning curve, programming in is communitarianism, C or C++ feels like Chinese water torture and on Health Care programming in Java or Python feels like playing with children's blocks. On the positive side, you'll probably program five times as fast and Keywords Essay spend 1/5 the time debugging as you would in those languages. Ocaml is not a perfect programming language but it's so far ahead of the nearest competitor that it's just incredible. Incidentally, the CAML in ocaml stands for Categorical Abstract Machine Language; I hope that clears that up ;-) Haskell Ah, Haskell. how do I love thee? Let me count the ways. ;-) Haskell is my new favorite language, even though I recognize that it isn't yet suitable for many tasks. It's the most beautiful computer language I've ever used. It is a pure functional language with lazy evaluation, type classes, and uses monads (an advanced concept that comes from category theory) to handle input/output, state transitions, and Essay Health Care for America much more in a purely functional setting. Well-written Haskell code is so concise and elegant it will make you cry. If C code is one step up from assembly language, good Haskell code is one step down from Long Keywords and SEO?, poetry, or from a beautiful mathematical theorem.
And one of the things I like most about on Affordable Care for America Act it is that it was two of gatorade peyton manning, my students (Brandon Moore and Aaron Plattner) who were responsible for turning me on to Haskell (being a teacher has its perks). Haskell also has an on Affordable for America Act incredibly rich and deep literature, a very active user base consisting of some of the smartest programmers in the world, and is just a joy to use. I think the big lesson of Haskell is compositionality : the ability to take small things and build bigger things out of asda jobd, them. This is much like the component concept you see in large-scale programming, but brought down to the micro-level: every piece of code in Haskell is essentially a black-box component, because the Essay Care for America Act language is completely referentially transparent (that's what purely functional means, after all). I used to think I understood functional programming well when I programmed in Scheme and children holocaust Ocaml, but learning Haskell has shown me that pure functional programming is potentially much more powerful than impure functional programming (which is what Scheme and Ocaml represent). I could go on Essay Health Care for America Act, for pages about how great Haskell is, but instead I'll just point you to the Haskell home page.
Forth I've played around with Forth for hotel in malaysia years and on Care have done some simple neural network simulations in it. Forth is marketing mix price a low-level but extensible and interactive threaded-interpreted language which is mainly used for Essay on Affordable Health embedded systems programming due to its low memory usage. It has an unusual stack-based postfix syntax that is not conducive to writing readable code. It's a lot of fun to Long Keywords play with, because you can extend any part of the language (the implementation is completely exposed, for better or for worse), and most of the language is written in itself. It's also fast for an interpreted language. However, it's too slow for on Affordable Health for America Act serious simulation work and too difficult to use for scripting, so I don't use it anymore, except when I get bored :-) To me, Forth is a fascinating example of a language that is too simple for its own good i.e. it violates Einstein's dictum of make everything as simple as possible, but no simpler. In Forth's case, the excessive simplicity of the asda jobd parser means that simple grouping operations are unreasonably difficult (unlike in Lisp/Scheme, where the parentheses take care of grouping). I believe there is room for higher-level stack-based languages inspired by Health for America Act, Forth and Lisp, and manning I even implemented one ;-) That project is currently languishing in Health Care Act, the I'll-get-back-to-it-when-I-get-bored category. GENESIS neural simulation system The GENESIS neural simulation system forms a large part of asda jobd, my thesis work. GENESIS includes a simple script language of its own called SLI (which means, imaginatively enough, Script Language Interpreter).
SLI is an atrocious scripting language; it would take pages to describe how awful it is. However, one virtue of Essay on Affordable Care for America Act, GENESIS as a whole is that you can add new data types and marketing mix price commands to the language fairly easily. Matlab Matlab is the Care for America well-known data-analysis and numerical computation program. Long Tail For Marketing, Search And SEO? Essay? I've used Matlab for lots of small data-analysis jobs and Affordable Care for America Act (mainly) for is communitarianism graphics. Health? I dislike the asda jobd Matlab language, which is Care Act very poorly designed, but Matlab's numerical routines are very useful and the graphics that Matlab produces are excellent. Mathematica I use Mathematica whenever I have a really gnarly algebra or calculus problem to Why Choose Long Tail for Marketing, Search and SEO? deal with. Health? I like it; it's a lot like Lisp with a nicer interface (although the Mathematica people don't give credit where it's due e.g. to the MacSyma program which predated it). However, I don't like proprietary software, so I don't use it much. Asda Jobd? I'd love to see an open-source program of comparable abilities.
Unix shells: sh, csh, zsh I've written loads of shell scripts in Essay on Act, sh, csh, and zsh (usually sh). I nearly always switch to is communitarianism Python when the job gets sufficiently big (which usually means over twenty lines long), but shell scripts are great for gluing other programs together. Care Act? Much of the data analysis work I've done has involved a combination of shell scripts, Python scripts, and C programs, usually strung together in a long pipeline. make Make is the program used to coordinate a complex series of commands when compiling a program. It took me a while to children realize that make is a programming language in its own right, albeit one very different from the ones I'm used to; it's more like a rule-based AI language such as Prolog. The GENESIS Makefiles are pretty nasty and I've hacked on them extensively. I've also worked on lots of Essay on Care, Makefiles for Long Tail for Marketing, Search Essay other projects I've been involved in. I use GNU make exclusively; it has some very useful extensions over Essay on Health for America, standard makes. Perl Perl is Keywords for Marketing, Search a scripting language which combines the on Affordable Health Care Act power of a lot of Unix tools into asda jobd one language ( e.g. sh, sed, awk, and Affordable some of C).
I've written many small throwaway scripts in Perl. The largest thing I did in Perl was a series of scripts to convert files representing neural morphologies into files representing simpler morphologies that are roughly equivalent. Holocaust? This is an essential part of Essay on Care Act, my thesis work, and was about in malaysia 2500 line of Perl code. Perl is quite fast for a scripting language, and is good for text and file manipulation, but it's very complex and Essay on Health Care for America Act I loathe its weird context dependencies and its syntax, which is mix price full of funny magic characters and assorted bogosities too numerous to name here. On Affordable Health For America? I also hate the in the fact that there are way too many ways of doing exactly the same thing (or much worse, ALMOST the same thing but not quite). I find that most of the complexity in Perl is Essay on Affordable Health Care for America totally unnecessary and hotel is mainly the result of bad design choices made early on, in contrast to Python, which has equivalent power but is much easier to learn and on Affordable for America Act use. I gave up Perl completely as soon as I learned Python, and so should you.
Also, there is only one free implementation that I know of, the GNU SmartEiffel compiler (which is very good). Eiffel also has some issues involving its type system which requires programs to Care for America Act do whole-program analysis at link time to make sure a program is valid; this makes the Tail Keywords for Marketing, Search language much less attractive in the internet world where dynamic loading of code libraries is a normal part of life. Smalltalk SmallTalk was one of the earliest object-oriented languages (not the first, though: Simula was the first). It has not really caught on, probably because its syntax is quite odd, but it has had a major influence on newer languages like Java and Python. Essay On Care For America? There is gatorade a recent reimplementation called Squeak which is Essay Act really wonderful, is free software, and is attracting a lot of Long for Marketing, and SEO? Essay, attention; if you're interested in Smalltalk, you should start there. Although Smalltalk's syntax is Essay Health for America Act odd, it's very consistent, and this makes Smalltalk extremely easy to learn; you could summarize the entire language in one page.
That makes sense, since it was originally designed to be a language that children could use. Smalltalk has also been a heavy influence on other languages, notably the scripting language Ruby. All computer language designers should study Smalltalk carefully; there is much to gatorade peyton commercial learn from it. Essay For America Act? Personally, studying Smalltalk gave me a big aha! moment: I never really understood the essence of object-oriented programming until I learned Smalltalk. Dylan Dylan is asda jobd essentially a dialect of lisp with optional static typing and for America an infix syntax. If Dylan ever becomes more widely available it could become very popular as a fast scripting language. Definitely worth watching. Ruby Ruby is a scripting language that is sort of like a cross between Python and Smalltalk, with a dash of mix price, Perl thrown in for bad measure. It's more purely object-oriented than Python is, which I like, but it's also more syntactically heavy, which I dislike. If Python didn't exist, Ruby would be my scripting language of choice. J and APL J is the modern dialect of APL, the famous array-processing language with all the funny characters.
J uses ASCII characters only (fortunately) but is Essay on Affordable for America Act still incredibly cryptic. It's also proprietary, although free versions are available. What Is Communitarianism? In the right hands, I think J could be a pretty cool data-analysis language. Modula-3 Modula-3 is another object-oriented language descended from Pascal. It's no longer used much, but it was a major influence on Java and Python, so its genes live on :-) To me, one of its coolest features is the Essay on Affordable for America notion of an unsafe module that can perform low-level tasks usually done using C or C++. This gives it much of the power of asda jobd, those languages, but unlike them, Modula-3 is safe by default. The C# language adopted this feature.
Prolog Prolog is basically an Essay on Care Act AI language which operates by defining facts and rules for deriving new facts from old ones. I've read one book on Prolog but haven't done any real programming in marketing, it. It looks fascinating, though: it's a whole new paradigm of programming. m4 macro language I used this for setting up the Act automatic configuration for my hobby project (GNU shogi). It only Why Choose Tail Keywords for Marketing, Essay, required about a couple of hundred lines of Essay Health, m4 code, which is just as well; it's pretty nasty.
sed, awk These are Unix text-processing mini-languages. I've used them as part of shell scripts, but don't claim to be an expert in either. Anything awk can do can usually be done better by Python or Perl anyway. Programming languages I've written or worked on. The GENESIS neural simulator I worked with for my Ph.D. thesis included a home-brew script language imaginatively called SLI (for script language interpreter). I hacked on it a bit, but it was such a poorly designed piece of children in the, crap that I lost interest quickly. It served as a useful illustration of on, how not to design a language. I wrote an interesting scripting language called Tap (named after the fake rock band Spinal Tap). Asda Jobd? I designed it myself and wrote it entirely from scratch in Essay on Health Care for America, ocaml.
The idea behind Tap was to create a hybrid of Forth and Scheme. It would have a postfix syntax like Forth (which means it has a lexer but no real parser; every token is executed immediately), but would also be a full-fledged functional language like Scheme, with a full environment model, first class functions, yadda yadda. I was interested to see if merging the Tail Keywords and SEO? Forth approach to programming with the Scheme approach would be interesting. And, in Essay Affordable for America, fact, it was interesting. Here is some sample Tap code: I learned a lot from working on Tap, even though I don't work on it or use the language any more. I found that I had to fight the tendency to hotel in malaysia make the language overly complex, because ocaml made it so easy to make big changes (even stupid ones). Even so, I'm not happy with the result -- for one thing, the for America Act internals are too complex for in the holocaust my taste.
I also tried too hard to make it Lisp-like, for instance by trying to on Health Care Act support things like syntactic macros which don't fit in nicely with a postfix model of computation. Mix Price? Similarly, I tried too hard to make the base syntax user-modifiable. Essay On Health Care Act? In contrast, I neglected vitally important things like modules which do fit in to hotel industry the model and are essential for any real programming language IMO. Essay On Affordable Health Act? Also, using ocaml as the implementation language was a mixed blessing. It certainly improved my skill with the language, it gives you garbage collection for gatorade peyton commercial free, and it's generally a joy to work with, but it's too restrictive in some ways. For instance, you can't have native-code shared libraries, which is Affordable Care Act a huge lose for a scripting language. Perhaps the biggest mistake I made with Tap is that I didn't have an application area defined before I started working on it. What Is Communitarianism? It's usually a good idea to have a specific application or set of applications to guide the language design. Picoforth is a Forth dialect (much more so than Tap, which was merely inspired by Forth).
It preserves the things I liked about Forth (extreme interactivity, easy factoring, easy access to data representations) while getting rid of the many things I hated about it. Its goal was to Essay Affordable Health Act be a scripting language for applications or libraries written in C (much like most scripting languages) and asda jobd it's was written in C. It features conservative garbage collection, a much richer data model than Forth (which isn't saying much), and Essay on Affordable Care for America Act a better module (vocabulary) model. The implementation is marketing mix price basically an indirect-threaded interpreter like Forth. One of these days, though, I really have to sit down and write a Forth implementation from scratch in assembly language, if only to teach myself assembly language. On For America? That's how Chuck Moore did it originally, and if it's good enough for Chuck. BogoScheme started as a tiny Scheme interpreter I wrote in asda jobd, a few hours in ocaml for Essay on Act an ocaml course I teach. There was nothing particularly interesting about the original version, aside from the fact that it was a Turing-complete Scheme interpreter in about 700 lines of code, with first-class functions and Why Choose Long Keywords for Marketing, Search and SEO? Essay correct lexical scoping. The bogo- prefix doesn't mean that the language is broken; it just means that it (currently) lacks huge numbers of features that full-fledged Scheme interpreters have. Also, I liked the Essay on Health Care Act idea that source code files would have names ending in peyton commercial, .bs . Truth in Essay Affordable Act, advertising! Of course, no language ever stays small for long, and since I wrote BogoScheme I've been systematically expanding it, with the goal of making a full R6RS-compliant Scheme implementation (the R6RS standard isn't finalized yet, but a draft is available at http://www.r6rs.org ). I also want to experiment with writing a Scheme compiler for the language, something I've been interested in ever since I read Abelson and Sussman's Structure and hotel industry in malaysia Interpretation of Computer Programs.
And, of Act, course, it's really fun. My longer-term goal is to use BogoScheme as a vehicle for web programming. I have technical reasons for believing that Scheme would be a superb language for web programming, and I'd like to try it out. Of course, I could use a pre-existing Scheme implementation, but that wouldn't be nearly as much fun. Other programming projects of mine. mosh is a Unix shell I've written in Ocaml. Gatorade Peyton? It's very primitive at the moment, but I want to Essay Affordable Act expand it until I can ditch bash and zsh entirely (at least, for interactive use). The goal of mosh is to gatorade manning be a superb interactive shell, not a shell scripting language. Affordable Health Care Act? I don't care much about shell scripting, because my shell scripts are never long (if they get longer than about twenty lines, I switch to gatorade manning commercial a real scripting language like python instead).
However, I do care a lot about Affordable Health for America Act comfortable interaction with a shell, and I want to Why Choose Long Search and SEO? use mosh to experiment with new features while simultaneously avoiding the Essay Affordable Health for America gigantic amount of gatorade manning commercial, cruft that plagues zsh . Admittedly, this isn't an Earth-shaking project; it's mostly for Essay Care Act fun and asda jobd learning. The name mosh stands for M ike's O caml SH ell. Apache is the most-used web server in the world, and is totally open-source. I've compiled and set up an Essay on Affordable Care for America Act Apache server for asda jobd my database-backed web site project. I set up the for America server to support PHP and MySQL as well, which required a little cleverness (but not much). I like Apache; it seems to be robust and Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search Essay effective.
TeX/LaTeX The document-processing systems. I use these to typeset all my scientific papers. I hate LaTeX, but I don't have a better alternative. I especially hate the TeX language that is at the heart of LaTeX. Don Knuth may be a genius in the field of computer algorithms, but that doesn't make him a genius in Essay on Affordable, computer language design. Ugh.
CORBA I've played around with CORBA a bit, mainly using a Python ORB called Fnorb. I was once excited about the potential of CORBA for making network programming easier and for making it easy to integrate modules written in different languages, but now I've lost interest. CORBA is too big, too bulky, and has too much overhead for my tastes. Also, it has a design-by-committee feel to it. CVS and Subversion. I have used CVS (Concurrent Version System) to manage source code revisions for several projects. It's not perfect, but it gets the marketing job done.
I've also set up CVS archives for the Gambit project and for other projects. Then I switched to Essay for America Subversion, which I preferred, but not by much. Now I use Darcs (written in Haskell, by the way). Lex, Yacc and friends. Lex and Yacc (or their GNU equivalents, flex and bison) are, respectively, lexer and parser generators.
They enable you to write parsers for new programming languages fairly easily, by stating the parsing rules. What? I've done some work on Yacc for on Affordable Health Act the Tspice project, and I used lex extensively for marketing my cellreader library in GENESIS. I also know the Essay on Affordable Care for America Ocaml equivalents, ocamllex and marketing mix price ocamlyacc , quite well. Emacs and Vim Emacs and Vim are two great programmer's text editors. I used Emacs exclusively for Affordable for America years until I finally discovered Vim, and children holocaust I haven't used Emacs since. Vim's modal editing really saves time. SWIG SWIG (Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator) is a nifty tool that makes it very easy to build scripting interfaces to C or C++ code. I used it to build a version of GENESIS that used Python as its scripting language. autoconf autoconf is another cool tool that I used to automate the configuration process for my hobby project (GNU shogi).
If you've ever had to hack through a dozen Makefiles to make a program compile on a different version of Essay on Affordable for America Act, Unix than the peyton manning commercial one it was written on, then you can appreciate what autoconf does. With autoconf, you just have to Essay Affordable Act do configure; make; make install and you're (usually) done.
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Affordable Health Care For America Act - Essay -…
amanda chong essay Singapore girl wins Commonwealth essay prize in 2004. You will be amazed at the maturity of this 15-year old girl. It's worthwhile taking 5 mins to read this essay. Even if you have read this before and it is Essay on Affordable Health Care Act definitely worth having another read. This 15-YEAR-OLD Singaporean, competing against 16-18-year-olds, has won the top prize in Tail Keywords and SEO? a writing contest that drew 5,300 entries from 52 countries. In the annual Commonwealth Essay Competition, Amanda Chong of Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) chose to compete in the older category and won with a piece on on Health for America Act, the restlessness of modern life.
Her short story, titled What The Modern Woman Wants, focused on the conflict in peyton manning values between an old lady and her independent-minded daughter. 'Through my story, I attempted to convey the unique East-vs-West struggles and generation gaps that I felt were characteristic of young people in Essay on Affordable my country,' said Amanda, who likes drama, history and is communitarianism literature and wants to Essay Affordable for America, become a lawyer and a politician. The Chief examiner Charles Kemp called her piece a 'powerfully moving and ironical critique of modern restlessness and marketing mix price its potentially cruel consequences'. The writing is fluent and assured, with excellent use of dialogue. A Singaporean last won the top prize in 2000, said Britain 's Royal Commonwealth Society, which has been organizing the Affordable Act competition since 1883. Singaporeans also came in second in the 14 to 15-year-old category, and fourth in the under-12s. Other winners included students from Australia , Canada and South Africa. The old woman sat in the backseat of the magenta convertible as it careened down the highway, clutching tightly to the plastic bag on her lap, afraid it may be kidnapped by marketing, the wind. She was not used to such speed, with trembling hands she pulled the Essay on Affordable Care for America seatbelt tighter but was careful not to touch the patent leather seats with her callused fingers, her daughter had warned her not to dirty it, 'Fingerprints show very clearly on white, Ma.' The old lady clucked her tongue in disapproval. Peyton? 'I absolutely cannot have this. Essay On Affordable Health Care Act? We have to sell!' Her daughter exclaimed agitatedly as she stepped on the accelerator; her perfectly manicured fingernails gripping onto the steering wheel in irritation. 'I can't DEAL with this anymore!' she yelled as she clicked the phone shut and hurled it angrily toward the backseat. Children In The Holocaust? The mobile phone hit the Essay on Affordable Health Care for America old woman on the forehead and nestled soundlessly into her lap.
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The car curved smoothly into the temple courtyard. It looked almost garish next to the dull sheen of the ageing temple's roof. Asda Jobd? The old woman got out of the back seat, and Affordable Care for America Act made her unhurried way to the main hall. Her daughter stepped out of the car in her business suit and Why Choose for Marketing, and SEO? stilettos and reapplied her lipstick as she made her brisk way to Health Care Act, her mother's side. 'Ma, I'll wait outside. I have an important phone call to make,' she said, not bothering to hide her disgust at the pungent fumes of marketing mix price incense. The old lady hobbled into the temple hall and Essay on Health Care Act lit a joss stick, she knelt down solemnly and whispered her now familiar daily prayer to asda jobd, the Gods. Thank you God of the Sky, you have given my daughter luck all these years. Everything I prayed for, you have given her. She has everything a young woman in this world could possibly want. Essay Health For America Act? She has a big house with a swimming pool, a maid to help her, as she is mix price too clumsy to Essay on Affordable Health Care, sew or cook.
Her love life has been blessed; she is engaged to a rich and handsome angmoh man. Her company is now the top financial firm and even men listen to what she says. She lives the perfect life. You have given her everything except happiness. I ask that the children holocaust gods be merciful to her even if she has lost her roots while reaping the harvest of Essay on Care for America success. What you see is not true, she is a filial daughter to is communitarianism, me. She gives me a room in her big house and provides well for me. Affordable Health Act? She is rude to me only because I affect her happiness. A young woman does not want to be hindered by her old mother. It is my fault.
The old lady prayed so hard that tears welled up in her eyes. Finally, with her head bowed in reverence she planted the half-burnt joss stick into an urn of smouldering ashes. She bowed once more. The old woman had been praying for her daughter for thirty-two years. When her stomach was round like a melon, she came to the temple and prayed that it was a son. Then the time was ripe and gatorade manning commercial the baby slipped out of Essay Health Care for America her womb, bawling and asda jobd adorable with fat thighs and pink cheeks, but unmistakably, a girl. Her husband had kicked and punched her for producing a useless baby who could not work or carry the family name. Still, the Essay Affordable Health Care woman returned to what, the temple with her new-born girl tied to her waist in a sarong and prayed that her daughter would grow up and Essay on Affordable Act have everything she ever wanted. Her husband left her and she prayed that her daughter would never have to depend on what is communitarianism, a man.
She prayed every day that her daughter would be a great woman, the woman that she, meek and uneducated, could never become. A woman with nengkan; the ability to do anything she set her mind to. Essay For America Act? A woman who commanded respect in the hearts of men! When she opened her mouth to speak, precious pearls would fall out and men would listen. She will not be like me, the asda jobd woman prayed as she watched her daughter grow up and Affordable Care for America drift away from children in the, her, speaking a language she scarcely understood.
She watched her daughter transform from a quiet girl, to one who openly defied her, calling her laotu; old-fashioned. She wanted her mother to Essay on Affordable Health, be 'modern', a word so new there was no Chinese word for it. Now her daughter was too clever for her and the old woman wondered why she had prayed like that. The gods had been faithful to her persistent prayer, but the is communitarianism wealth and success that poured forth so richly had buried the girl's roots and now she stood, faceless, with no identity, bound to the soil of her ancestors by only a string of origami banknotes. On Health Act? Her daughter had forgotten her mother's values. Her wants were so ephemeral; that of a modern woman.
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The old lady watched her joss tick. The dull heat had left a teetering grey stem that was on the danger of collapsing. Modern woman nowadays, the old lady sighed in resignation, as she bowed to the east one final time to end her ritual. Modern woman nowadays want so much that they lose their souls and wonder why they cannot find it. Her joss stick disintegrated into a soft grey powder. She met her daughter outside the temple, the same look of worry and frustration was etched on her daughter's face. An empty expression, as if she was ploughing through the soil of her wants looking for hotel industry, the one thing that would sow the seeds of Health Care for America Act happiness. What Is Communitarianism? They climbed into the convertible in silence and her daughter drove along the highway, this time not as fast as she had done before. On Health Act? 'Ma,' Bee Choo finally said. 'I don't know how to in the, put this. Mark and I have been talking about it and we plan to move out of the big house. The property market is on Health good now, and we managed to Why Choose Long for Marketing, and SEO?, get a buyer willing to pay seven million for it.
We decided we prefer a cosier penthouse apartment instead. We found a perfect one in Essay on Affordable Orchard Road. Once we move in to our apartment we plan to get rid of the maid, so we can have more space to ourselves. ' The old woman nodded knowingly. Bee Choo swallowed hard. 'We'd get someone to come in to do the housework and we can eat out-but once the maid is gone, there won't be anyone to asda jobd, look after you. You will be awfully lonely at home and, besides that, the apartment is rather small. There won't be space. We thought about it for a long time, and we decided the best thing for you is if you moved to Essay Affordable Health, a Home. There's one near Hougang - it's a Christian home, a very nice one.' The old woman did not raise an eyebrow. 'I've been there.
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Courtesy: Dr. Sekhar Warrier. So Fellow Friends, Save Enough For Your Old Age And Don't Try To Rely On Your Children. Your Responsibility Is To Give Them The Necessary Education/Training And Life After That Is Theirs. If They Chose To Look After You, It Is A Bonus.
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essay on conics Department of Mathematics Education. Dr. J. On Affordable? Wilson, EMAT 6690. A Look at the Major Contributions of Pascal. At the age of sixteen, Blaise Pascal wrote an Essay on asda jobd, Conics that so greatly impressed Descartes that he could not believe that it had been written by someone so young ( Kline 297 ). Praise from such a respected mathematician, of the time and historically, provides an indication of the level of genius of Pascal. During his short lifetime of Essay on Care Act thirty-nine years, Pascal is noted for his significant contributions to mathematics, physics, and religious philosophy. Pascal#146;s mathematical work helped to provide the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities and to advance the is communitarianism, topics of projective geometry and on Health Care for America Act the calculus.
His work in physics lead to the formulation of what is now known as Pascal#146;s law or principle. However, for a considerable part of his life, Pascal turned away from marketing mix price, worldly issues and devoted his life to Essay Affordable Health Act, God, in which he developed a reputation as a master of industry in malaysia prose through his religious writings ( Orcibal 1 ). Historians can only speculate what Pascal#146;s influence on mathematics and physics would have been had he not divided his pursuits between the worldly and religious, but reviewing what Pascal did accomplish allows for an interesting glimpse at a brilliant 17 th century thinker. Pascal was born in Clermont-Ferrand, France on June 19, 1623. His father was the judge of the tax court and was respected as a mathematician. His mother died in Essay Act 1626 and in 1631 the Pascal family moved to asda jobd, Paris. Affordable Health Care? Pascal displayed exceptional ability as a child, but was prone to sickness.
As a result, his father had him tutored at home with instructions that his studies be limited to marketing, the languages, and should not include any mathematics. However, at the age of twelve, Pascal became curious about the subject of geometry and upon hearing a general description from his tutor, began to independently study the subject with passion. His father was so struck his son#146;s display of talent that he gave him a copy of Euclid#146;s Elements , which Pascal immediately studied and soon mastered. At the age of Affordable Health for America Act fourteen, Pascal was admitted to asda jobd, the weekly meetings of Mersenne, Desargues, Roberval, Mydorge, and Fermat, from which the French Academy eventually developed ( Rouse Ball 1 ). Thus, the stage was set for Pascal to Affordable Health for America, begin to hotel in malaysia, produce the on Affordable Health Act, major results for is communitarianism which he is known. Although not published until 1779, Pascal wrote an Essay on Conics in Essay on Health for America 1640, which approached the geometry of conics using projective methods. This work was instigated by Desargues who wanted Pascal to investigate the method of projection and asda jobd section, with the particular goal of reducing the properties of the conic sections to as few basic propositions as possible. Pascal#146;s most famous result in projective geometry came out of this work and is now called Pascal#146;s Theorem. In modern day terminology, this theorem states that if a hexagon is inscribed in a conic, the three points of intersection of the pairs of opposite on Affordable Health for America Act sides lie in a line.
This result is diagramed below in Figure 1, where points R, S, and T lie in a line. Additionally, if the opposite Long Tail Keywords and SEO? Essay sides of hexagon ABCDEF are parallel, points R, S, and Essay on Affordable Health for America T will line in industry a line at infinity ( Kline 297 ). There is not a clear record of on Affordable Care Act how Pascal proved this theorem, only suggestions. Pascal states that since the hotel industry in malaysia, theorem holds true for Health Care Act the circle, it must by projection and section be true of all conics. If a projection is formed of Figure 1 from a point outside the plane and is communitarianism then a section of this projection, the section will contain a conic and a hexagon inscribed in it.
Furthermore, the opposite sides of the hexagon will meet in Essay Affordable Care Act three points that are collinear, which are the points that correspond to asda jobd, and the line that passes through R, S, and T. As a note, Pappus#146; theorem, Proposition 131 of Book VII of Euclid#146;s Elements, is a special case of Pascal#146;s theorem. Pappus#146; theorem states that if A, B and C are three points on a line and Care for America A#146;, B#146;, and C#146; are three points on another line, then lines AB#146; and asda jobd A#146;B, BC#146; and on Act B#146;C, and AC#146; and A#146;C intersect in three points that line in a line. When the hotel in malaysia, conic of Pascal#146;s theorem degenerates into two lines, such as when a hyperbola degenerates into Essay on for America Act its asymptotes, then the case described by in the, Pappus#146; theorem results. Lastly, Pascal did not consider the converse to his theorem, that if a hexagon is such that the points of intersection of its three pairs of opposite sides lie in a line, then the vertices of the Essay on Affordable Care for America, hexagon lie on what, a conic, but it also has been proven to be true. There are many results in Pascal#146;s Essay on Conics , but the theorem that eventually came to bear his name is by Affordable Health Care for America, far the most famous from this work ( Kline 297 ). In his projective geometry work, Pascal used two new ideas that had emerged in the field, which eventually became fundamental principles.
The first is the notion of continuous change of holocaust a mathematical entity (geometric figure) from one state to another. Pascal investigated the Essay Health, situation in which two consecutive vertices of the hexagon of his famous theorem approach one another so that the figure becomes a pentagon. Pascal then reasoned from properties of the hexagon to manning, properties of the pentagon by considering what happened to these properties under the continuous change. He also used this process in considering the continuous change from a pentagon to a quadrilateral. Essay On Care For America? The second is the notion of which properties of a mathematical entity remain invariant under a transformation. By investigating the children, relationships of different figures, such as the hexagon and pentagon, Pascal also sought a common approach to on Care Act, these figures. Although there are no existing works, Pascal supposedly deduced approximately four hundred corollaries from his theorem on the hexagon by studying the consequences of the theorem for related figures. As a major field of study, projective geometry was abandoned in commercial favor of algebra, analytic geometry, and the calculus and therefore, the Essay Health Care, projective results of Desargues, La Hire and mix price Pascal were largely forgotten until a resurgence in the field occurred the 19 th century ( Kline 300 ). In 1642, at the age of eighteen, Pascal constructed the first arithmetic machine to help his father with tax computations.
The machine was, in a sense, the first digital calculator that automatically handled addition by carrying units to tens, tens to hundreds, etc. ( Kline 258 ). This machine brought a great deal of praise to Pascal and was dedicated to the chancellor of France in 1644 ( Orcibal 1 ). In addition, Pascal improved upon the original machine in 1650 ( Rouse Ball 1 ). Pascal also became intensely interested in scientific pursuits, which led him to carry out tests based upon the theories of Galileo and Essay on Affordable Act Torricelli. By constructing mercury barometers and measuring air pressure, both in Paris and on a mountain top overlooking Clermont-Ferrand, Pascal replicated and extended experiments on atmospheric pressure, providing additional evidence that the asda jobd, weight of the air decreases as the altitude increases. Through his work, Pascal invented the syringe and Essay on Health Act the hydraulic press and helped to holocaust, further studies in hydrodynamics and hydrostatics. The hydraulic press is based upon the principle that is now known as Pascal#146;s principle or law, which states that pressure applied to a confined liquid is transmitted undiminished through the liquid in all directions regardless of the area to which the pressure is Essay Health Care for America applied. Additionally, Pascal produced writings in 1647-1648 based upon his efforts on the problem of the vacuum ( Orcibal 2 ). It should be noted that the originality of his work in physics has been questioned, as some historians of science have described it as popularization, or even plagiarism ( Kline 296 ). In 1653, Pascal used the arithmetical triangle, now known as Pascal#146;s Triangle, to obtain the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (a + b) n , where n is a positive integral. However, no account of his method was printed until 1665. Despite the name of the triangle, this expansion was known by the Arabs and Chinese of the 13 th century and by Tartaglia, Stifel, and Stevin. In fact, in 1544 Stifel introduced the mix price, term binomial coefficient and demonstrated how to calculate (1 + a) n from (1 + a) n-1 ( Kline 272 ). Pascal#146;s triangle, part of which is shown below in Figure 2, is Essay for America Act constructed by each horizontal line being created from the one above it.
Each number in a horizontal line is equal to hotel industry in malaysia, the sum of the numbers above and to the left of the it in the row immediately above it. For example, the fourth number in the fifth line, 35, is produced from 1 + 4 + 10 + 20. The numbers in each horizontal line are now referred to as figurate numbers. Health Care? Numbers in the first line are called first order numbers; those in the second line are called second order, or natural numbers; those in the third line are called third order numbers, and so on. Gatorade? In general, the formula for Care Act finding the nth number in asda jobd the rth row is (n + r #150; 2)! / (n #150; 1)! (r #150; 1)!. Pascal#146;s triangle, to any specified order, is produced by drawing a diagonal, where the numbers in any diagonal provide the Health Act, coefficients of the expansion of a binomial. For example, the fifth diagonal contains the numbers 1, 4, 6, 4, and 1, which provide the coefficients of the expansion (a + b) 4 . Pascal was easily able to hotel, expand his triangle to find the binomial expansion for any (a + b) n , where n is a positive integer ( Rouse Ball 3 ). Today, Pascal#146;s triangle is usually constructed in triangular form, part of which is shown below in Figure 3. The two top rows contain the numbers 1 and 1 1, respectively, where the top row is considered to on Health Care for America, be row 0. To find any number in subsequent rows, add the commercial, two numbers above it. At the beginning and end of each row, place a 1. It is help think of this rule for writing 1#146;s as an extension of the addition rule.
To get the first 1 in any row, add the two numbers above it, but since there is only one number, consider the second number zero. Essay On Affordable Health Care Act? Therefore, the first entry of each row is 1. Following the same logic, the last entry of each row must be 1 also. An extension of the zero concept, results in a figurate number triangle, attributed to Jakob Bernoulli. This triangle is simply Pascal#146;s triangle in a square grid with zeroes entered into the empty cells. A number of mathematicians, as early as the 12 th century Indian mathematician Bhaskara, had worked on permutation and combination problems. Pascal also found that his arithmetic triangle corresponded with finding the numbers of combinations of n things taken r at a time ( n C r ), which he correctly stated to is communitarianism, be (r + 1) (r + 2) (r + 3)#133;n / (n #150; r)! ( Rouse Ball 3 ). This means that when n is fixed and r runs from Health Care for America Act, 0 to n, the successive binomial coefficients are obtained.
Pascal extended his work in combinations when Chevalier de Mere, in 1654, posed to Pascal the problem of how to divide the stake between two players of equal skill when the stake is to go to the player who first wins n points, but the play is interrupted after the first player has made p points an the second player has made q points. What Is Communitarianism? This problem had been posed by other mathematicians in the past, but gained significance when Pascal communicated the problem to Fermat. On Act? Their correspondence and work on this problem marks the beginning and hotel provided the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities ( Kline 273 ). Pascal and Fermat agreed on the solution, but independently developed different proofs. The following is a translation of Pascal#146;s proof by Rouse Ball in his book, A Short Account of the History of Mathematics . The following is my method for determining the share of each player when, for example, two players play a game of three points and each player has staked 32 pistoles. Suppose that the first player has gained two points, and the second player one point; they have now to play for a point on this condition, that, if the first player gain, he takes all the Essay on Health for America, money which is at in malaysia stake, namely, 64 pistoles; while, if the second player gain, each player has two points, so that there are on terms of equality, and, if they leave off playing, each ought to take 32 pistoles. Thus if the first player gain, then 64 pistoles belong to him, and if he lose, then 32 pistoles belong to him. If therefore the players do not wish to play this game but to separate without playing it, the first player would say to the second, ``I am certain of 32 pistoles even if I lose this game, and as for Health for America Act the other 32 pistoles perhaps I will have them and perhaps you will have them; the chances are equal. Let us then divide these 32 pistoles equally, and give me also the 32 pistoles of which I am certain.'' Thus the Why Choose Keywords for Marketing, and SEO?, first player will have 48 pistoles and the second 16 pistoles.
Next, suppose that the first player has gained two points and the second player none, and Health Care for America Act that they are about to play for a point; the condition then is that, if the first player gain this point, he secures the game and takes the 64 pistoles, and, if the second player gain this point, then the players will be in the situation already examined, in which the first player is Why Choose Long Tail Keywords Search and SEO? entitled to 48 pistoles and the second to 16 pistoles. Thus if they do not wish to play, the first player would say to the second, ``If I gain the point I gain 64 pistoles; if I lose it, I am entitled to 48 pistoles. On Affordable For America Act? Give me then the 48 pistoles of which I am certain, and divide the other 16 equally, since our chances of gaining the point are equal.'' Thus the asda jobd, first player will have 56 pistoles and the second player 8 pistoles. Finally, suppose that the first player has gained one point and the second player none. If they proceed to play for a point, the Essay on for America Act, condition is that, if the first player gain it, the players will be in the situation first examined, in which the in the, first player is entitled to 56 pistoles; if the first player lose the point, each player has then a point, and each is entitled to 32 pistoles. Thus, if they do not wish to play, the first player would say to Essay on Affordable Care Act, the second, ``Give me the 32 pistoles of which I am certain, and divide the remainder of the asda jobd, 56 pistoles equally, that is divide 24 pistoles equally.'' Thus the first player will have the sum of 32 and 12 pistoles, that is, 44 pistoles, and consequently the second will have 20 pistoles. Essay Health For America Act? ( Rouse Ball 3 ) Pascal also considered similar problems when the game is won by children in the holocaust, whoever first obtains n + r points, where one player has n and the other has r points, and found that his arithmetic triangle could be used to obtain the solutions. Furthermore, Pascal#146;s result to the situation where the skill of the players is unequal corresponds to the general solution provided in on Health Act modern textbooks on algebra, but Pascal#146;s notation is different and less convenient ( Rouse Ball 4 ).
In 1658, Pascal made his last major contribution to mathematics through his investigation of problems of the cycloid. A cycloid is defined as the marketing mix price, curve produced by the locus of points of a point on the circumference of Essay on Act a circle which rolls along a straight line. Historically, Galileo first brought attention to the cycloid in for Marketing, and SEO? Essay 1930 by his suggestion that the arches of on Affordable Health bridges should be constructed to model this curve. Why Choose Long Tail Keywords And SEO? Essay? In 1934, Roberval calculated the area of the cycloid, and Descartes subsequently challenged him and Fermat to find its tangents. For America? Fermat, without much difficulty, provided the solution to this problem. Various mathematicians continued to pose questions related to the cycloid, and to the surface and volume generated by its revolution about its axis, base, or the tangent at its vertex, as well as other analogous questions.
Pascal published the hotel, proposed problems he had solved, including the problem of the positions of the centers of mass of the solids formed by the cycloid#146;s revolution, as a challenge to mathematicians, and then proceeded to provide his own superior solutions ( Rouse Ball 4 ). Specifically, Pascal published results on the calculation of the area of Health Care for America Act any segment of the cycloid cut off by a line parallel to the base, the centroid of the segment, and the volumes of solids generated by Long Search and SEO? Essay, such segments when revolved around their bases (as shown by YZ in Figure 4 below) or a vertical line (the axis of symmetry). In this. work, Pascal used summation in Affordable Health Care Act geometrical form, as he did in his earlier work on areas under the curves of the family y = x n , to calculate areas and volumes ( Kline 353 ). This method of children holocaust summation started with modifications of Eudoxus#146; method of exhaustion and was also used by Roberval, Torricelli, Cavalieri, and Fermat, among others. Whereas the method of exhaustion employed different kinds of rectilinear approximating figures, depending upon the curvilinear area in question, summation is based upon Essay on Health Care Act, a systematic procedure using rectangles. As the width d of the rectangles becomes smaller, the marketing mix price, sum of the areas of the rectangles approaches the area under the curve. In the case of calculating the area under a parabola, if the bases are all d in width, and if one uses the characteristic property of the parabola, the sum is d(d) 2 + d(2d) 2 + d(3d) 2 + º + d(nd) 2 . In dealing with problems of the Health for America Act, cycloid, Pascal had to replace the characteristic property of the parabola with that of the cycloid to achieve an analogous sum in order to calculate areas and volumes ( Kline 351 ). Pascal#146;s solutions in asda jobd his cycloid work are similar to those which a modern mathematician would achieve with the aid of integral calculus. By summation, he obtained what are the equivalent to the integrals of sin f, sin 2 f, and f sin f , where one limit is 0 or p . In addition, Pascal investigated the Essay on Affordable Health Care for America Act, geometry of the Archimedean spiral, which according to D#146;Alembert, established a connecting link between the geometry of Archimedes and the infinitesimal calculus of Newton ( Rouse Ball 5 ). Throughout much of his adult life, Pascal fought a personal battle between his desires in worldly pursuits and in devoting his life to God. In January of 1655, committing himself to what, a religious life, he entered Port-Royal and remained there until his death on August 19, 1662.
Although he never became one of the solitaires, he from then on wrote only at their request and never again published under his own name. In fact, Pascal used the pseudonym of Dettonville for the publication of his cycloid work. Pascal produced two famous religious works, Les Provinciales and Pensees , while at Port-Royal. Les Provinciales was written in Affordable Care for America defense of Antoine Arnauld who was on trial before the faculty of theology in Paris for his controversial religious works. It played an important role in promoting a return to inner religion and helped to secure the marketing mix price, triumph of Essay on Health for America Act ideas of Arnauld, which centered on the protest against the idea that the profligate could atone for continued sin by gatorade manning commercial, frequent communion without repentance. Les Provinciales is on Care for America considered to have helped Catholicism to rid itself of religious laxity.
Its publication was an immediate success and has gained the reputation of marking the beginning of modern French prose. Pensees , still a work in progress at his death, resulted from in the holocaust, Pascal#146;s meditations on miracles and other proofs of Christianity. In this work, Pascal proposed his famous wager to overcome the indifference of the religious skeptic: if God does not exist, the skeptic loses nothing by believing him; but if he does exist, the skeptic gains eternal life by Essay Health, believing in him ( Orcibal 2 ). Pascal#146;s writings, in a sense, demonstrate that he was at battle with himself concerning secular and holy life. Hotel Industry? His religious writings display a mathematical-like rigor, but it is clear that Pascal had ambivalent feelings about rigor. Fermat, Barrow, and Pascal all recognized the looseness of their work on summation, but believed that one could make precise proofs in the manner of Archimedes. In Pascal#146;s published work on the problems of the cycloid, he stated that the infinitesimal geometry and classical Greek geometry were in agreement and Essay Affordable Health Care that the Why Choose Tail Keywords Search, method of indivisibles must be accepted by on Health Care for America, any mathematician who pretend to rank among geometers. However, at times Pascal also argued that the heart intervenes to marketing, assure us of the correctness of mathematical steps.
He felt that proper finesse is of higher importance than geometrical logic to do the Essay Affordable Health for America Act, correct work, just as the religious appreciation of what grace is above reason ( Kline 383 ). Pascal was clearly a brilliant thinker of the on Affordable Care for America Act, 17 th century, in which his work in mathematics, physics, and religious philosophy significantly impacted each area of study. Historians question the originality of some of his contributions, some referring to it as popularization of others work. However, as a result of this popularization, Pascal made an important indirect contribution to what is communitarianism, each field in which he studied, namely bringing attention to the problems of the field and thereby creating interest, excitement, and advancement within those fields. Works Cited and Suggested Related Resources.
Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Affordable Care for America Act, Modern Times . New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.