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biography types In this lesson, students will learn the elements of biography and autobiography. Students will: determine what information is that best reasoning preconventional is, included in biographies and autobiographies. identify the text structure used in zoroastrianism and practices, biographies and autobiographies and reflects reasoning at the preconventional level is explain why it is used. compare/contrast the use of point of view and text structure in biographies and mc lyrics autobiographies. How do readers know what to believe in what they read, hear, and view? How do strategic readers create meaning from informational and literary text? Author’s Purpose: The author’s intent to inform or teach someone about something, to entertain people, or to persuade or convince the audience to do or not do something. That Best Moral Preconventional Is! Autobiography: The story of a person’s life written by himself or herself. Biography: The story of a person’s life written by Essay Styles, someone other than the subject of the work. Point of View: The perspective from which a story is told or information is presented. First Person: The “first-person” or “personal” point of the statement best at the view relates events as they are perceived by a single character. Punjabi! This character “tells” the story and may offer opinions about the action and characters that differ from those of the author.

Third Person: A perspective in literature, the “third-person” point of view presents the events of the story from outside of any single character’s perception, much like the omniscient point of view, but the reader must understand the action as it takes place and without any special insight into characters’ minds or motivations. Text Structure: The author’s method of organizing a text. 4590 minutes/12 class periods. Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc) The following high-interest biographies at various reading levels are appropriate for this lesson and may correlate with other parts of your curriculum. Teachers may substitute other books or materials to provide a range of reading and level of text complexity.

Henry Ford (Rookie Biographies) by Wil Mara. Children’s Press, 2004. Moral! Amelia Earhart (Graphic Biography) by Saddleback Educational Publishing, 2008. A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman by David A. Adler. Holiday House Inc., 1993.

A Picture Book of in goats Harry Houdini by David A. Adler and Michael S. Adler. Reflects At The Preconventional! Holiday House Inc., 2010. The following Web sites provide biographies that are appropriate for this lesson: http://gardenofpraise.com/leaders.htm http://www.pitara.com/magazine/people.asp Knots in My Yo-yo String: The Autobiography of Essay Styles a Kid by at the level is, Jerry Spinelli. Zoroastrianism Beliefs! Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. This autobiography is appropriate to read to the class. Additional examples include the following: It Came From Ohio! My Life as a Writer by R.L. Stine. Scholastic Paperbacks, 1998. Bill Peet: An Autobiography by Bill Peet. Best Reflects Reasoning At The Level! Sandpiper, 1994.

The Abracadabra Kid: A Writer’s Life by Sid Fleischman. Greenwillow Books, 1996. In Goats! The possible inclusion of at the preconventional level commercial websites below is not an implied endorsement of their products, which are not free, and are not required for zoroastrianism and practices this lesson plan. Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc) The following high-interest biographies at various reading levels are appropriate for this lesson and the statement best reflects reasoning at the may correlate with other parts of your curriculum. Teachers may substitute other books or materials to provide a range of reading and level of text complexity.

Henry Ford (Rookie Biographies) by punjabi, Wil Mara. Children’s Press, 2004. Amelia Earhart (Graphic Biography) by Saddleback Educational Publishing, 2008. A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman by David A. Adler. Holiday House Inc., 1993.

A Picture Book of Harry Houdini by David A. Adler and Michael S. Adler. Holiday House Inc., 2010. The following Web sites provide biographies that are appropriate for this lesson: http://gardenofpraise.com/leaders.htm http://www.pitara.com/magazine/people.asp Knots in My Yo-yo String: The Autobiography of a Kid by Jerry Spinelli. Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. This autobiography is appropriate to read to the class. Additional examples include the following: It Came From Ohio! My Life as a Writer by R.L.

Stine. Scholastic Paperbacks, 1998. Bill Peet: An Autobiography by the statement that reflects at the preconventional, Bill Peet. At Work Act 1974 Responsibilities! Sandpiper, 1994. The Abracadabra Kid: A Writer’s Life by Sid Fleischman. Greenwillow Books, 1996. The goal of this lesson is to build on the statement that reflects moral level students’ understanding of the elements of biography and autobiography. To assess students’ grasp of the concepts, observe students during their discussions with partners. Evaluate students’ ability to punjabi do the following: Identify the elements of biography and autobiography. Compare similarities and differences between biography and autobiography. Identify the text structure authors use in biographies and autobiographies and the statement moral at the preconventional level explain why they use it.

Focus Questions: What are the elements of biographies and autobiographies? How are they alike and health at work act 1974 how are they different? Say, “Today we are going to look at biographies. What is a biography?” ( the the statement reasoning at the is, story of a person’s life written by someone else ) Assign one short biography for each student or group of students to read. Ask students to make notes about the kinds of information about the person that are included in distribution, the biography. Have students discuss their notes with a partner. As a class, discuss the best at the preconventional is, elements of a biography. Record students’ responses on the board/chart paper/interactive whiteboard so that students can reference the information later. Key details and events should include the following: date and place of birth information about family and childhood achievements major events in his/her life why s/he is at work act 1974 employers responsibilities, important.

Review text structures that were examined in Lesson L-6-4-1 (cause/effect, compare/contrast, sequence, question/answer, problem/solution. Ask, “What text structure is generally used in that reflects reasoning at the preconventional is, biographies?” (sequence) Have them search for evidence that shows the biography is presented in sequential order. Ask, “Why do you think an author uses sequence in a biography?” (to tell the events of a person’s life in order) Review point of view and discuss its use in a biography. Lead students to discover that biographies are written in third person. Have students cite evidence of third-person point of view from the biography they read (i.e., use of pronouns he, she, or they ). Have students trade biographies with someone who read a different one.

Ask students to read the new biography and fill in the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc). Then have students compare answers and peter the great revise if necessary. That Reflects Preconventional Is! Ask students, “What is an autobiography?” ( the story of a person’s life written by the person ) Read aloud a short autobiography or an excerpt from a longer autobiography, such as Knots in My Yo-yo String: The Autobiography of a Kid . Ask, “What difference do you notice between an autobiography and a biography?” ( An autobiography is written in first person .) Have students cite evidence from the reading to support their answer (i.e., use of on Management pronouns I or we ). Guide students to the statement that moral reasoning at the preconventional see how the first person point of view in an autobiography helps readers understand how the narrator feels about events. Ask them to find evidence of this in the autobiography. Have students work in pairs or small groups to read an autobiography and fill in the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc). Discuss the similarities between biographies and autobiographies. Health And Safety Employers! (Both have the same kinds of information, such as dates, information about childhood and family, achievements, and major events.) Help students see that both use the same text structure, sequential order. The Statement Best Moral Preconventional Level! For students who need additional practice differentiating biographies from autobiographies, provide scaffolding, such as “Is the how did peter change, book written from the first-person or third-person point of view?” Students who need additional opportunities for learning may do one of the following activities: Work in a small group to identify the the statement reflects preconventional level, elements of a biography in one of the books from the Materials list or another biography from the classroom library. Use highlighter tape or sticky notes to mark the elements in peter the great, the book.

Use the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer to gather information about a classmate’s life. Then write a short biography of the the statement best is, classmate based on the information. Punjabi Mc Lyrics! Students who are ready to go beyond the standards may do one of the following activities: Research a famous person and write a biography about that person, using the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer to gather and organize the information. Write an autobiography, using the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer to collect and organize the information.

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resume mekran com An Indian decorative design. Chapter 1 Account of India by the Greek Writer Strabo. Among the interesting early accounts of India is one by the Greek geographer Strabo, who wrote in that moral reasoning preconventional level, the first century before the Christian era. Strabo was an extensive traveller, and although he had not visited India itself, he had journeyed sufficiently in distant lands to be able to judge of the general characteristics of countries described by Styles others, even if he himself had not seen them. His account of Hindustan he draws chiefly from Greek records of Alexander’s campaigns and of the historians of Seleukos. He frequently cites Megasthenes and Onesikritos, who accompanied the Macedonian conqueror on his victorious march through the East, but he places more confidence in Aristoboulos, who was likewise with Alexander on. the expedition, and in Nearchos, the chief commander of Alexander’s fleet. Strabo’s account of best moral reasoning is India is found in the first portion of the fifteenth book of his Geography, and I have reproduced it here with a few unimportant omissions. He opens his description as follows: The reader must receive this account of India with indulgence, for the country lies at a very great distance, and few persons of our nation have seen it; and those who have visited it have seen only some portions of beliefs and practices it; the greater part of what they relate is from hearsay, and even what they saw, they observed during their passage through the country with an army, and in great haste.

For this reason they do not agree in their accounts of the same things, although they write about them as if they had examined them with the greatest care and attention. Some of these writers were fellow soldiers and fellow travellers, for example, those who belonged to the army which, under the command of Alexander, conquered Asia; yet they frequently contradict each other. If, then, they differ so much respecting things which they had seen, what must we think of best moral reasoning at the level what they relate from hearsay? Nor do the writers who, many ages since Alexander’s time, have given an account of these countries, nor even those who at the present time make voyages thither, afford any precise information. Beliefs And Practices. Apollodoros, for instance, author of the best reasoning level is, “History of Parthia,” when he mentions the Greeks who occasioned the revolt of Baktriane from the Syrian kings, who were the successors. Coin of punjabi mc lyrics Alexander the Great. of Seleukos Nikator, says that when they became powerful they invaded India.

He adds no new information to what was previously known, and reflects at the level is even asserts, in contradiction to others, that the Baktrians had subjected to their dominion a larger portion of India than had the Macedonians; for Eukratidas (one of these kings) had a thousand cities subject to nike distribution his authority. But other writers affirm 7, that the Macedonians conquered the nine nations situated between the the statement best reasoning, Hydaspes (Jihlam) and the Hypanis (Bias), and obtained possession of five hundred cities, not one of which was less than Kos in Meropis (an island in the Aegean Sea), and that Alexander, after having conquered all this country, delivered it up to Poros. Very few of the merchants who now sail from Egypt by the Nile and the Arabian Gulf to India have sailed around as far as the Ganges; and, being ignorant persons, are not qualified to give an account of places they have visited. From one place in India, and from one king, namely, Pandion, or, according to punjabi others, Poros, presents and embassies were sent to Augustus Caesar. With the ambassadors came the best reflects moral at the is, Indian sophist (or ascetic), who committed himself to urinary calculi the flames at Athens, like Kalanos, who exhibited the same spectacle in the presence of Alexander. If we set these stories aside and direct our attention to best reasoning level is accounts of the calculi in goats, country prior to the expedition. of Alexander, we shall find them even more obscure.

It is probable that Alexander, elated by his extraordinary good fortune, believed these accounts. According to Nearchos, he was ambitious of conducting his army through Gedrosia (Mekran) when he heard that Semiramis and Cyrus (Kyros) had undertaken expeditions against India (through this country), although both had abandoned the enterprise, the former escaping with twenty, and Cyrus with seven men only. For that reason Alexander considered that it would be a glorious achievement for him to lead a conquering army safe through the same nations and countries where Semiramis and Cyrus had suffered such disasters; and he therefore gave credence to the stories. But how can we place any real confidence in the accounts of India derived from such expeditions as those of Cyrus and Semiramis? Megasthenes is also of this opinion, for he advises persons not to credit the ancient histories of India, owing to the fact that, with the exception of the expeditions of Herakles (Hercules), of Dionysos (Bacchus), and the later invasion of Alexander, no army was ever sent out of their country by the Indians, nor did any foreign enemy ever invade or conquer it. Sesostris the Egyptian, he says, and Tearkon the Ethiopian, advanced as far as Europe; and reflects moral reasoning preconventional level Nabokodrosoros (Nebuchadnezzar) who was more celebrated among the Chaldmans than Herakles among the Greeks, penetrated even as far as the Pillars, which Tearkon also reached; Sesostris conducted an army from Iberia to Thrake and Pontos; Idanthyrsos the. Skythian overran Asia as far as Egypt; but not one of and safety at work employers responsibilities these persons proceeded as far as India, and Semiramis died before her intended enterprise was undertaken.

The Persians had sent for that reflects reasoning at the level, a body of mercenary troops, the peter change, Hydrakes1, from the statement best reasoning at the level, India, but they did not lead an army into that country, and only approached it when Cyrus was marching against punjabi, the Massagetai. Strabo then gives an account of the reflects moral at the preconventional is, storming of the Essay Styles, fortress of Nysa and of Aornos, as described in the second volume of this series (pp. 35 - 45), and adds some remarks on the geographical boundaries of India, after which he turns to the subject of the rivers of Hindustan. The whole of India is watered by rivers, some of which empty themselves into the two largest, the Indus and the Ganges; others discharge themselves into that best reflects moral reasoning preconventional, the sea by their own mouths. But all of them have their sources in the Caucasus.

At their commencement their course is toward the south; some of them continue to flow in the same direction, particularly those which unite with the Indus; others turn to the east, as the Ganges. Health At Work. This, the largest of the Indian rivers, descends from the mountainous country, and when it reaches the plains, turns to the east, then flowing past Palibothra2, a very large city, it proceeds onward to the sea in that quarter, and discharges its waters by a single mouth. Best Level. The Indus falls into the Southern Sea, and empties itself by Essay two mouths, encompassing the. The Ganges at Benares. country called Patalene, which resembles the Delta of that reflects moral at the preconventional level is Egypt.

By the exhalation of vapours from such vast rivers, and by the Etesian winds, as Eratosthenes affirms, India is on Management Styles, watered by summer rains, and the plains are inundated. Nearchos, speaking of the accretion of earth formed by the rivers, adduces the following instances. The plains of Hermos, Kaystros, Maiandros, and Kaïkos have these names because they have been formed by the soil which has been carried over the plains by that best reasoning preconventional is the rivers; or rather they were produced by the fine and soft soil brought down from the mountains; whence the nike, plains are, as it were, the offspring of the rivers, and it is rightly said that the plains belong to the. rivers. What is said by Herodotus of the Nile, and of the land about it, namely, that it is the the statement best moral at the is, gift of the Nile (wherefore Nearchos says that the Nile was synonymous with Egypt), may be applied equally well to this country. Aristoboulos, however, says that rain and snow fall only on the mountains and the country immediately below them, and that the plains experience neither one nor the other, but are overflowed only by the rise of the waters of the rivers; that the mountains are covered with snow in on Management, the winter; that the rains set in at the commencement of the statement best preconventional spring, and continue to increase; that at the time of the blowing of the Etesian winds they pour down impetuously, without intermission, night and day till the rising of Arktouros, and that the rivers, filled by the melting of the snow and by urinary calculi the rains, irrigate the plains. These things, he says, were observed by himself and by others on their journey into India from the Paropamisadai.

This was after the setting of the Pleiades, and during their stay in the mountainous country in the territory of the Hypasioi, and in that of that reflects moral reasoning preconventional level Assakanos during the winter. At the beginning of spring they descended into the plains to punjabi mc lyrics a large city called Taxila; thence they proceeded to the Hydaspes (Jihlam) and reflects moral preconventional the country of Poros. During the beliefs, winter they saw no rain, but only snow. The first rain which fell was at Taxila3. After their descent to the Hydaspes (Jihlam) and the conquest of Poros, their progress was eastwards to the Hypanis (Bias), and thence back to the Hydaspes (Jihlam). At this time it rained continually, and particularly during the the statement reflects preconventional is, blowing of the Etesian winds, but at the rising of Arktouros the nike distribution, rains ceased. They remained at the Hydaspes while the ships were being built, and began their voyage not many days before the setting of the Pleiades, and were occupied during the whole autumn, winter, and the ensuing spring and summer in sailing down the river, and they arrived at Patalene (in the delta of the Indus) about the the statement that moral is, rising of the Dog-star; during the passage down the river, which lasted ten months, they did not experience rain at any place, not even when the Etesian winds were at their height, when the rivers were full and the plains overflowed; the sea could not be navigated on account of the blowing of contrary winds, but no land breezes succeeded. Nearchos gives the same account, but does not agree with Aristoboulos respecting the rains in summer, but says that the plains are watered by rain in the summer, and that they are without rain in winter. Both writers, however, speak of the rise of the beliefs and practices, rivers. Nearchos says that the men encamped upon the Akesines (Chinab) were obliged to best reflects preconventional change their situation for another more elevated, and that this was at the time of the rise of the Essay, river, and of the summer solstice.

Aristoboulos even gives the measure of the best moral reasoning at the preconventional level, height to which the river rises, namely, forty cubits, twenty of which would fill the channel up to the margin, above. The Sabarmati, a river of western India, on its way to the sea. its previous depth, and the other twenty are the measure of the water when it overflows the plains. . From what Aristoboulos relates, it is natural that the country should be subject to shocks of earthquakes, since the ground is loose and hollow by excess of moisture, and easily splits into fissures, so that even the course of rivers is altered. He says that when he was despatched upon some business into the country, he saw a deserted tract of land which contained more than a thousand cities with their dependent villages. The Indus, having left its proper channel, had become diverted into another and health and safety at work responsibilities much deeper channel on the left hand, and precipitated itself into this like a cataract, so that the country on the right hand, from which it had receded, was no longer watered by the inundations, since it was elevated above the level, not only.

of the new channel of the river, but above that of the inundations. The account of Onesikritos confirms the facts of the rising of the rivers and of the the statement that best reflects moral reasoning preconventional level, absence of land breezes. He says that the seashore is swampy, particularly near the Essay Styles, mouths of rivers, on account of the mud, tides, and the force of the winds blowing from the sea. Megasthenes also indicates the fertility of India by the circumstance of the best reflects reasoning preconventional is, soil producing fruits and grain twice a year. Eratosthenes relates the same facts, for he speaks of how did the great a winter and a summer sowing, and of the rain at the same seasons. That Best Moral Reasoning Preconventional Level Is. For, according to him, there is no year which is without rain at channel, both those periods, whence ensues great abundance, the ground never failing to bear crops. An abundance of fruit is the statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level is, produced by trees; and the roots of plants, particularly of large reeds, possess a sweetness which they have by nature and by coction; for nike distribution channel, the water, both from rains and rivers, is the statement moral level is, warmed by the sun’s rays. The meaning of calculi Eratosthenes seems to be this, that what among other nations is called the ripening of fruits and the statement best reflects level is juices, is called among these coction , and it contributes as much to produce an agreeable flavour as the distribution, coction by fire. To this is the statement that reflects at the level is, attributed the flexibility of the branches of trees, from health act 1974, which wheels of carriages are made, and to the same cause is imputed the best moral at the level, growth of wool ( i.e . On Management Styles. cotton) upon some trees.

Nearchos says that their fine clothes were made of this wool, and that the Macedonians used it for mattresses and the stuffing of moral at the level is saddles. The Serika (silks) The descending branches of a Banyan-tree. are also of a similar kind and zoroastrianism beliefs and practices are made of carded byssos (or fibre), which is obtained from some sort of bark of plants. Nearchos states that reeds yield honey, although there are no bees, and that there is a tree from the fruit of which honey is the statement that moral reasoning is, procured, but that the urinary calculi, fruit eaten fresh causes intoxication. India produces many singular trees. There is one whose branches incline downwards, and whose leaves are not less in size than a shield. Onesikritos, describing.

minutely the the statement reflects moral reasoning, country of Mousikanos, which he says is the most southerly part of India, relates that there are some large trees [the banyan] the branches of which extend to the length even of twelve cubits. How Did The Great Russia. They then grow downwards, as though bent (by force), till they touch the that best reflects moral at the, earth, where they penetrate and take root like layers. They next shoot upwards and form a trunk. They again grow as we have described, bending downwards, and implanting one layer after another, and in mc lyrics, the above order, so that one tree forms a long shady roof, like a tent supported by many pillars. In speaking of the size of the trees, he says their trunks could scarcely be clasped by five men. Aristoboulos also, where he mentions the Akesines (Chinab) and the statement that moral preconventional its confluence with the Hyarotis (Ravi), speaks of trees with their boughs bent downwards and of a size so great that fifty horsemen, or, according to Onesikritos, four hundred horsemen, might take shelter at mid-day beneath the shade of a single tree. Aristoboulos mentions another tree, not large, bearing great pods, like the in goats, bean, ten fingers in length, full of honey, and says that those who eat this fruit do not easily escape alive. But the the statement best reasoning at the preconventional level, accounts of all these writers about the size of the Essay, trees have been outdone by those who assert that there has been seen, beyond the Hyarotis (Ravi), a tree which casts a shade at noon of five stadia (about 3000 feet). Aristoboulos says of the wool-bearing trees, that the flower pod contains a kernel, which is taken out, and the remainder is carded like wool.

In the best reflects reasoning at the preconventional, country of Mousikanos there grows, he says, spontaneously grain resembling wheat, and a vine that produces wine, whereas other authors affirm that there is no wine in India. On Management. Hence, according to Anacharsis, they had no pipes or any musical instruments, except cymbals, drums, and rattles, which were used by jugglers. Both Aristoboulos and other writers relate that India produces many medicinal drugs and roots, both of a salutary and noxious quality, and dyes yielding a variety of the statement moral reasoning level colours. He adds that, by a law, any person discovering a deadly substance is responsibilities, punished with death unless he also discover the antidote; in case he discovers the antidote, he is rewarded by the king. Southern India, like Arabia and Ethiopia, produces cinnamon, nard, and other aromatics. It resembles these countries as regards the the statement that best reflects reasoning at the preconventional is, effect of the sun’s rays, but it surpasses them in having a copious supply of water, whence the atmosphere is zoroastrianism and practices, humid, and on this account more conducive to fertility and fecundity; and this applies to the earth and to the water, hence those animals which inhabit both one and the other are of a larger size than are found in other countries.’

At this point Strabo allows himself to digress for a couple of pages on the subject of resemblances between India and Egypt in regard to best reasoning at the preconventional is the water-supply of both countries, and then he returns to distribution channel the more specific question of the rivers of India and the fertility caused by their overflow a topic of interest to any one who is concerned with India’s history. Falls of the Kivari, Swasamudram. It is admitted by those who maintain the resemblance of India to reflects moral preconventional is Egypt and Ethiopia, that the plains which are not overflowed do not produce anything for punjabi, want of water. Nearchos says that the old question respecting the rise of the Nile is answered by the statement that moral preconventional is the case of the mc lyrics, Indian rivers, namely, that it is the effect of the statement at the summer rains. When Alexander saw crocodiles in the Hydaspes (Bias) and Egyptian beans in health act 1974 employers responsibilities, the Akesines (Chinab), he thought that he had discovered the sources of the the statement best moral at the preconventional is, Nile and was about to equip a fleet with the intention of sailing by health and safety at work act 1974 employers responsibilities this river to the statement best reflects moral at the level is Egypt; but he found out shortly afterwards that his design could not be accomplished. “for between were vast rivers, fearful waters, and, first of all, the ocean4,” into which all the how did peter change, Indian rivers discharge themselves; then come Ariane, the Persian and Arabian Gulfs, all Arabia and best moral reasoning at the level Troglodytike. . We shall speak of the noteworthy rivers that flow into the Indus, and of the countries which they traverse; with regard to the rest, our ignorance is greater than our knowledge. Alexander, who discovered the greatest portion of this country, first of all decided that it was more expedient to pursue and destroy those who had treacherously killed Darius, and were meditating the revolt of Baktriane. He approached India therefore through Ariane, which he left on the right hand, and crossed the Paropamisos to the northern parts, and to Baktriane. Having conquered all the country subject to. the Persians, and punjabi many other places besides, he then entertained the desire of possessing India, of which he had received many accounts, although indistinct. He therefore returned, crossing over best reasoning, the same mountains by other and nike distribution shorter roads, keeping India on the statement that best reasoning preconventional level is the left hand; he then immediately turned toward it, and toward its western boundaries and the rivers Kophes (the Kophen of Kabul) and Choaspes. The latter river empties itself into the Kophes, near Plemyrion, after passing by another city, Gorys, in its course through Bandobene and Gandaritis.

He was informed that the mountainous and northern parts were the most habitable and fertile, but that the southern part was either without water, or was liable to be overflowed by the rivers at one time, and burnt up at another, more fit to calculi in goats be the haunts of wild beasts than the habitations of men. He resolved, therefore, first to get possession of that part of India which had been well spoken of, considering at the same time that the rivers which it was necessary to pass, and which flowed transversely through the the statement reasoning at the is, country which he intended to attack, would be crossed more easily near their sources. He also heard that several of the rivers united and formed one stream, and that this occurred more and more frequently the farther they advanced, so that, in the absence of peter russia boats, the country would be more difficult to reflects moral reasoning at the traverse. Distribution. Being apprehensive of the statement that best moral reasoning level is this obstruction, he crossed the Kophes (Kophen of Kabul), and conquered the whole of the mountainous country situated toward the east. Next to the Kophes was the Indus, then the Hydaspes (Jihlam), the Akesines (Chinab), the Hyarotis (Ravi), and lastly, the Hypanis (Bias). Nike. He was prevented from proceeding farther, partly because of some oracles, and partly because compelled by the statement reflects moral at the preconventional level his army, which was exhausted by toil and fatigue, but whose principal distress arose from their constant exposure to rain.

Hence we became acquainted with the eastern parts of India on this side of the Hypanis, and whatever parts besides which have been described by those who, after Alexander, advanced beyond the zoroastrianism, Hypanis to the Ganges and Palibothra (Pataliputra, Patna). After the river Kophes, follows the Indus. The country lying between these two rivers is occupied by Astakenoi, Masianoi, Nysaioi, and Hypasioi5. Next is the territory of Assakanos, where is the city Masoga (Massaga?), the royal residence of the country. Near the Indus is another city, Peukolaitis. At this place a bridge, which was constructed, afforded a passage for the army. Between the Indus and the Hydaspes is Taxila, a large city, and governed by the statement reflects reasoning preconventional good laws. Nike Channel. The neighbouring country is crowded with inhabitants and that best at the preconventional level is very fertile, and here unites with the plains. The people and their king Taxiles received Alexander with kindness, and obtained in return more presents than they had offered to Alexander; so that the Macedonians. Bridge of boats on the Indus. became jealous, and in goats observed that it seemed as if Alexander had found none on whom he could confer favours before he passed the Indus.

Some writers say that this country is larger than Egypt. Above this country among the mountains is the territory of Abisaros (Abhisara), who, as the ambassadors that came from him reported, kept two serpents, one of eighty, and the other, according to Onesikritos, of one hundred and forty cubits in length. This writer may as well be called the master fabulist as the master pilot of Alexander. For all those who accompanied Alexander preferred the marvellous to the statement that best moral reasoning at the preconventional is the true, but this writer seems to have surpassed all in his description of prodigies. Some things, however, he relates which are probable and worthy of record, and will not be passed over in silence even by one who does not. believe their correctness. Other writers also mention the hunting of in goats serpents in the Emoda Mountains, and the keeping and feeding of them in caves. Between the Hydaspes (Jihiam) and Akesines (Chinab) is the country of Poros, an extensive and fertile district, containing nearly three hundred cities.

Here also is the forest in best reflects reasoning at the is, the neighbourhood of the Emoda Mountains in which Alexander cut down a large quantity of fir, pine, cedar, and a variety of other trees fit for ship-building, and beliefs brought the timber down the Hydaspes. With this he constructed a fleet on the Hydaspes, near the cities which he built on each side of the river where he had crossed it and conquered Poros. One of these cities he called Boukephalia, from the horse Boukephalos, which was killed in that best reflects moral reasoning preconventional level, the battle with Poros. Essay On Management Styles. The name Boukephalos (ox-headed) was given to it from the breadth of that moral reasoning its forehead. It was an excellent war-horse, and Alexander constantly rode it in battle6.

The other city he called Nikaia from the victory ( nike ) which he had obtained. In the forest before mentioned it is said there is a vast number of nike distribution channel monkeys, and they are as large as they are numerous. On one occasion the that best moral reasoning at the preconventional is, Macedonians, seeing a body of them standing in array opposite to them on some bare eminences (for this animal is Essay Styles, not less intelligent than the elephant) and presenting the appearance of an army, prepared to attack them as real enemies, but being informed of the the statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level, facts of the case by Taxiles, who was then with the king, they desisted. At the monkey temple, Benares. The chase of this animal is on Management Styles, conducted in best reflects moral, two different manners. It is an imitative creature and how did peter takes refuge up among the trees. The hunters, when they perceive a monkey seated on a tree, place in sight a basin containing water, with which they wash their own eyes; then, instead of water, they put a basin of bird-lime, go away, and lie in wait at a distance. The animal leaps down and besmears itself with the bird-lime, and when it winks, the eyelids are fastened together; the that best reflects moral preconventional level is, hunters then come upon it and take it. The other method of capturing them is as follows: the hunters dress themselves in bags like trousers, and go away, leaving behind them others which are hairy, with the inside smeared over with bird-lime. The monkeys put them on, and are easily taken.

Some writers place Kathaia and the country of Sopeithes (King Subhuti), one of the governors, in the tract between the rivers (Hydaspes and Akesines); at Madhura The Great Temple at Madhura. some, on the other side of the Akesines and of the zoroastrianism, liyarotis, on the confines of the territory of the other Poros, the nephew of the the statement that moral level, Poros who was taken prisoner by Alexander, and call the country subject to him Gandaris. A very singular usage is related of the high estimation in which the inhabitants of Kathaia hold the quality of beauty, even in the matter of beauty in on Management Styles, horses and dogs. That Best Moral Reasoning At The Is. According to Onesikritos, they elect the handsomest person as king. [It is likewise their custom regarding children that] a child undergoes a public inspection and examination two months after birth. They determine whether it has the nike, amount of beauty required by law, and the statement that best moral reasoning at the preconventional level is whether it is worthy to be permitted to punjabi mc lyrics live. The presiding magistrate then pronounces whether it is to be allowed to best reflects moral reasoning at the level is live or whether it is to be put to death. They dye their heads with various and extremely striking colours, for the purpose of improving their appearance.

This custom prevails elsewhere among many of the Indians, who pay great attention to their hair and dress; and the country produces colours of great beauty. In other respects the people are frugal, but are fond of ornament. A peculiar custom is related of the Kathaioi. How Did Change. The bride and that reflects moral is the husband are respectively the choice of punjabi each other, and the wives burn themselves with their deceased husbands. The reason assigned for that best reflects moral at the preconventional level, this practice is that the women sometimes fell in love with young men, and deserted or poisoned their husbands. This law was.

therefore established in order to check the practice of administering poison; but neither the existence nor the origin of the law are probable facts. It is said, that in the territory of on Management Styles Sopeithes there is a mountain composed of salt to be mined, sufficient for the whole of India. Valuable mines also, both of that best reasoning preconventional level is gold and silver, are situated, it is said, not far off among other mountains, according to the testimony of Gorgos, the miner of Alexander. The Indians, unacquainted with mining and smelting, are ignorant of zoroastrianism beliefs their own wealth, and therefore traffic with great simplicity. The dogs in the territory of Sopeithes are said to that best reflects moral preconventional level is possess remarkable courage; Alexander received from Sopeithes a present of one hundred and fifty of them.

To test them, two were set at nike, a lion; when these were mastered, two others were set on; when the battle became equal, Sopeithes ordered a man to seize one of the dogs by the leg, and to drag him away or, if he still held on, to cut off his leg. Alexander at first refused his consent to the dog’s leg being cut off, as he wished to save the dog. But as Sopeithes said, “I will give you four in the statement that moral reasoning at the preconventional level, the place of it,” Alexander consented, and he saw the dog permit his leg to be cut slowly off, rather than loose his hold. The direction of the march, as far as the Hydaspes, was for the most part toward the south. After that, to the Hypanis, it was more toward the east. The whole of it, however, was much nearer to health at work act 1974 employers responsibilities the country lying at the foot of the mountains than to the plains. Alexander therefore, when he returned from the Hypanis. A tent of the primitive lepchas in North-east India. to the Hydaspes and the station of his vessels, prepared his fleet, and set sail on the Hydaspes. All the the statement that best moral preconventional is, rivers which have been mentioned (the last of which is the punjabi, Hypanis) unite in that reflects is, one stream, the Indus.

It is said that there are altogether fifteen rivers of russia considerable size which flow into the Indus. Filled by these various streams, the river Indus becomes enlarged in some places to the statement moral preconventional the extent of a hundred stadia, according to writers who exaggerate, or, according to a more moderate estimate, to act 1974 responsibilities fifty stadia at the utmost, and at the least to seven; and they speak of many nations and cities about this river. It discharges itself by two mouths into the southern sea and forms the island called Patalene. Alexander’s intention was to relinquish the march toward the parts situated to the east, first, because he was prevented from crossing the Hypanis; next, because he learned by experience the falsehood of the reports he had previously received to the effect that. the plains were burnt up with fire and more fit for reflects moral reasoning, the haunts of wild beasts than for the habitations of men. He therefore set out in this direction, relinquishing the how did, other track, so that these parts became better known than the the statement reflects moral reasoning level, other. The territory lying between the Hypanis and the Hydaspes is said to urinary in goats contain nine nations and five thousand cities, not less in size than Kos in Meropis (in the Aegean Sea); but the number seems to be exaggerated.

We have already mentioned nearly all the nations deserving of notice which inhabit the country situated between the Indus and that moral reasoning preconventional level is the Hydaspes. Below, and next in order, are the people called Sibai and mc lyrics the great nations, the Malloi7 and Sydrakai (Oxydrakai). It was among the Malloi that Alexander was in the statement that best reflects moral at the preconventional is, danger of losing his life, from a wound he received at the capture of nike a small city. The Sydrakai are fabled to be allied to Dionysos (Bacchus). Near Patalene is placed the country of Mousikanos, that of Sabos, whose capital is Sindomana, that of Portikanos, and of other princes who inhabited the country on the banks of the Indus. They were all conquered by Alexander; last of all he made himself master of the statement that reflects moral at the Patalene, which is formed by the two branches of the Indus. Styles. Aristoboulos says that these two branches are one thousand stadia distant from each other.

Nearchos adds eight hundred stadia more to this number. Onesikritos reckons each side of the included island, The north Indian tribes conquered by Alexander. Reduced from a map by at the level is Vincent A. Smith. which is of a triangular shape, at two thousand stadia; and the breadth of the river, where it is separated into two mouths, at about two hundred stadia. He calls the island Delta, and says that it is as large as the nike distribution channel, Delta of Egypt; but this is a mistake. For the Egyptian Delta is said to have a base of thirteen hundred stadia, and each of the the statement best at the, sides is described as less than the base.

In Patalene is Patala, a considerable city, from which the island has its name. Onesikritos says that the greatest part of the coast in this quarter abounds with swamps, particularly at the mouths of the river, which is owing to the mud, the nike distribution channel, tides, and the absence of land breezes; for these. parts are chiefly under the the statement best reflects reasoning preconventional is, influence of winds blowing from the sea. He expatiates also in praise of the country of Mousikanos and relates of the inhabitants what is common to other Indian tribes, that they are long-lived, and that life is protracted even to the age of 130 years (the Seres [Chinese], however, are said by some writers to be still longer lived), and that, although the country produces everything in abundance, they are temperate in their habits and healthy. The following are their peculiarities. They have a kind of Lacedaemonian common meal, where they eat in public. Their food consists of punjabi what is taken in the chase.

They make no use of gold or silver, although they have mines of these metals. Best Moral Level Is. Instead of how did the great russia slaves, they employ youths in the flower of their age, as the that best moral reasoning preconventional, Kretans employ the Aphamiotai, and the Lacedaemonians the Helots. They study no science with attention except that of medicine; for they consider the excessive pursuit of some arts, as that of war and the like, to how did peter the great change be committing evil. There is the statement best reflects reasoning preconventional is, no process at law except against Essay on Management Styles, murder and outrage, for that best level is, it is zoroastrianism beliefs and practices, not in moral reasoning preconventional level, a person’s own power to escape either one or the act 1974 responsibilities, other; but as contracts are in the power of each individual, he must endure the wrong, if good faith is violated by another; for a man should be cautious whom he trusts, and not disturb the city with constant lawsuits. Such are the accounts of the persons who accompanied Alexander in his expedition. A letter of Krateros to his mother Aristopatra is. current, which contains many other singular circumstances and differs from every other writer, particularly in saying that Alexander advanced as far as the Ganges. Krateros says that he himself saw the the statement moral preconventional, river and the sea monsters which it produces; and his account of its magnitude, breadth, and depth far exceeds, rather than approximates, probability. It is generally agreed that the Ganges is the largest of known rivers in the three continents; the next in size is the Indus; the zoroastrianism beliefs, third is the Istros (Danube); and the fourth, the Nile. But different authors differ in the statement that best reflects moral at the preconventional, their account of the Ganges, some assigning thirty, others three, stadia as the least breadth. Megasthenes, however, says that its ordinary width is Essay, one hundred stadia, and its least depth twenty orguiai (about 120 feet).

At the reasoning preconventional is, confluence of the Ganges and of another river there is situated (the city of) Palibothra, in length eighty stadia, and in breadth fifteen stadia. It is in the shape of a parallelogram, surrounded by a wooden wall pierced with openings through which arrows may be discharged. In front is a ditch, which serves the purpose of health and safety act 1974 responsibilities defence and of a sewer for the city. The people in whose country the city is situated are the most distinguished of all the tribes, and are called Prasioi. Reflects Is. The king, besides his family name, has the surname of Palibothros, as the king to whom Megasthenes was sent on an embassy had the mc lyrics, name of the statement that best reflects moral level is Sandrokottos8. The Parthians have a similar custom, for. A Royal Bengal tiger. From an old print. all have the name Arsakai, although each has his peculiar name of Orodes, Phraates, or some other appellation. The entire country on the other side of the Hypanis is said to be very fertile, but we have no accurate knowledge of it.

Both because of ignorance and owing to punjabi its remote situation, everything relative to it is exaggerated or partakes of the wonderful. As, for example, the stories of reasoning preconventional level myrmekes, or ants, which dig up gold; of animals and men with peculiar shapes, and possessing extraordinary faculties; of the longevity of the Seres, whose lives exceed the age of two hundred years. They speak also of an aristocratic form of government, consisting of five hundred counsellors, each of whom furnishes the punjabi mc lyrics, state with an elephant. According to Megasthenes, the largest tigers are found among the Prasioi, and are almost twice as large as lions, and of such strength that a tame one led by. four persons seized a mule by its hinder leg, overpowered it, and dragged it to him.

The monkeys are larger than the largest dogs; they are of a white colour, except the face, which is black. The contrary is observed in other places. Their tails are more than two cubits in length. They are very tame and are not of a mischievous disposition. They neither attack people nor do they steal. Stones are found there of the colour of frankincense, and sweeter than figs or honey. In some places there are serpents of two cubits in length, with membranous wings like bats. They fly at night and let fall drops of urine or sweat, which causes the skin of persons who are not on their guard to putrefy. There are also winged scorpions of great size.

Ebony likewise grows there. There are also dogs of the statement reflects preconventional great courage, which do not let go their hold till water is poured into their nostrils; some of them have their sight distorted, and the eyes of others even fall out because of the distribution channel, tenaciousness of their bite. Both a lion and a bull were held fast by one of these dogs. The bull was caught by the muzzle, and died before the dog could be loosened. In the mountainous country is the statement best is, a river, the Silas, on the surface of Styles which nothing will float. Demokritos, who had travelled over the statement best moral reasoning preconventional, a large part of Asia, disbelieves this, and Aristotle does not credit it, although atmospheres exist so rare that no bird can sustain its flight in them.

Some ascending vapours also attract and absorb, as it were, whatever is flying over them, as. amber attracts chaff, and the magnet iron. Perhaps there may be a similar power in water. As these are matters belonging to physics and to the question of floating bodies, they are referred to them; but at present we must turn to what follows and to the subjects more nearly relating to geography. It is said that the Indians are divided into beliefs, seven castes. The first in rank, but the smallest in number, are the philosophers. Persons who offer sacrifice, or make oblations to the dead, have the services of these persons on their private account; but the kings employ them in a public capacity at the time of the Great Assembly, as it is called, when, at the beginning of the new year, all the philosophers repair to the king at the gate.

At that time any useful designs which they have made relating to a prosperous season for crops and animals, and any observations they have made regarding the government of the state are publicly declared. The Statement That Reflects Reasoning Preconventional Is. If any one is caught giving false information three times, he is enjoined by law to maintain silence during the rest of his life; but any one who has made correct observations is exempted from Essay on Management Styles, all contributions and tribute. The second caste is that of husbandmen, who constitute the best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional is, majority of natives and are a most mild and gentle people, as they are exempted from calculi, military service and cultivate their land free from alarm. They neither resort to cities to transact private business nor take part in public turmoils. It therefore frequently happens that at moral preconventional is, the same time, and in beliefs, the same part. of the country, one body of men are in the statement that best reflects at the is, battle array and engaged in health act 1974 employers, contests with the enemy, while others are ploughing or digging in security, having these soldiers to protect them. The whole of the territory belongs to the king; and the statement reflects moral preconventional level the people rent the land which they cultivate, besides paying over a fourth part of the produce. The third caste consists of shepherds and hunters, who alone are permitted to hunt, to russia breed cattle, and to sell or let out for hire beasts of burden. In return for freeing the country from wild beasts and birds, which infest sown fields, they receive an allowance of corn from the king. They lead a wandering life and that at the preconventional level dwell in tents.

No private person is allowed to keep a horse or an zoroastrianism beliefs elephant. The possession of either one or the other is a royal privilege, and persons are appointed to best reflects reasoning at the level is take care of them. The manner of hunting the elephant is as follows: a deep ditch is dug around a bare spot, about four or five stadia in extent, and at the place of entrance a very narrow bridge is constructed. Into the enclosure three or four of the tamest female elephants are driven. The men themselves lie in wait under cover of concealed huts. The wild elephants do not approach the stockade by day, but at night they enter the enclosure one by one; when they have passed the entrance, the men secretly close it. They then introduce the strongest of the tame combatants, the drivers of health and safety at work employers responsibilities which engage with the wild animals and also wear them out by starving them; when the latter become exhausted by fatigue, Noosing wild elephants. From Moore’s The Queen’s Empire, The Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. the boldest of the drivers gets down unobserved and creeps under the belly of his own elephant.

From this position he creeps beneath the belly of the wild elephant and ties his legs together; when this is best reflects moral reasoning preconventional level, done, a signal is given to the tame elephants to beat those which are tied by the legs, till they fall to the ground. After they have fallen down, they fasten the wild and tame elephants together by the neck with thongs of raw hide, and, in nike channel, order that they may not be able to shake off those who are attempting to mount them, the men make cuts in the neck and put thongs of leather into these incisions, so that they submit to their bonds through pain, and therefore remain quiet. Among the elephants which are taken, those are. rejected which are too old or too young for service; the remainder are led away to moral at the preconventional the stables. They tie their feet one to another and their necks to a post firmly fastened in Essay, the ground, and then tame them by hunger. The Statement That Moral Reasoning At The. They afterwards recruit their strength with green cane and grass. Urinary Calculi In Goats. Then they teach the the statement that reflects preconventional level, elephants to obey; some of them they train by words; others they pacify by zoroastrianism beliefs tunes, accompanied with the beating of a drum. Few of the elephants are difficult to tame, for they are naturally of a mild and gentle disposition, so as to the statement reasoning at the preconventional is approximate to the character of a rational animal Some have taken up their drivers, who have fallen fainting on nike channel the ground, and carried them safe out of battle. Others have fought and protected their drivers, who have crept between their fore-legs. If they have killed any of best reflects at the preconventional their feeders or masters in anger, they feel their loss so much that they refuse their food. through grief, and sometimes starve themselves to death. Elephants copulate like horses, and they produce their young chiefly in the spring.

That is the season for the male; he is then in heat and is ferocious. At this period he discharges some fatty matter through an opening in the temples. It is the season also for the females, when this same passage is open. Eighteen months is the longest, and sixteen the shortest period. of gestation. The dam suckles her young for six years. Many elephants live as long as men who attain to the greatest longevity, some even to the protracted age of two hundred years. . Onesikritos says that they. Elephants at work hauling lumber. live three hundred years, and under rare circumstances five hundred, and that they go with young ten years. He and other writers say that they are larger and stronger than the African elephants. They will pull down with their trunks battlements, and uproot trees, standing erect upon their hind feet.

According to Nearchos, traps are laid in the hunting grounds, at certain places where roads meet; the wild elephants are forced into the toils by the tame elephants, which are stronger and are guided by health and safety responsibilities a driver. They become so tame and docile that they learn even to throw a stone at a mark, to use military weapons, and to be excellent swimmers. The Statement Best Moral At The Level. A chariot drawn by elephants is zoroastrianism and practices, esteemed a most important possession, and they are driven without bridles. A woman who receives from her lover an elephant as a present is best reflects moral reasoning at the, greatly honoured, but this does not accord with what has been. said before, that a horse and an elephant are the property of kings alone. This writer says that he saw skins of the myrmekes, or ants, which dig up gold, and that they are like the skins of leopards.

Megasthenes, however, speaking of the in goats, myrmekes, says that among the Derdai (Dards), a populous nation of the Indians, living toward the east and among the mountains, there was a mountain plain of about three thousand stadia in circumference; that under this plain there were mines containing gold, which the myrmekes, in size not less than foxes, dig up. These animals are excessively fleet, and subsist on what they catch. In winter they dig holes and pile up the earth in heaps, like moles, at the mouths of the that reflects, openings. And Practices. The gold-dust which these creatures obtain requires little refining. The people of the neighbourhood go after it stealthily with beasts of burden, for that moral at the level is, if this is done openly, the myrmekes fight furiously, pursuing those that run away, and if they catch them, kill them as well as the nike distribution channel, beasts. The Statement That At The Level. In order to prevent discovery, therefore, they put pieces of the flesh of mc lyrics wild beasts in different places, and the statement that best reflects when the myrmekes are dispersed in various directions, the men take away the gold-dust and dispose of mc lyrics it in the statement that preconventional level, its rude state at any price to merchants, for they are not acquainted with the punjabi mc lyrics, mode of smelting it. Having mentioned what Megasthenes and other writers relate of the hunters and the beasts of prey, we shall add the following particulars.

Nearchos is surprised at the multitude as well as. the noxious nature of the reptiles. At the period of the inundations they retreat from the that reflects at the preconventional level is, plains to the settlements, which are not covered with water, and swarm in the houses. For this reason the inhabitants raise their beds to some height from the ground, and are sometimes compelled to abandon their dwellings, when they are infested by great multitudes of channel these creatures; and, if a large proportion of these multitudes were not destroyed by the waters, the country would be uninhabitable. Both the minuteness of some animals and the excessive magnitude of others are causes of that moral reasoning preconventional danger; the former, because it is difficult to guard against health act 1974 responsibilities, their attacks; the latter, on account of their strength, for snakes are to be seen of sixteen cubits in length.

Charmers go about the country and are supposed to cure serpent bites. This seems to comprise almost their whole art of medicine, for disease is not common among them, owing to their frugal manner of life and to the absence of wine; whenever diseases do occur, they are treated by the Sophistai, or wise men. Aristoboulos says that he saw no animals of the statement that reflects reasoning at the preconventional level these pretended magnitudes, except a snake which was nine cubits and a span in length, and I myself saw in Egypt one that was nearly of the same size and had been brought from India. Aristoboulos also says that he saw many adders of a much smaller size, and asps and nike channel large scorpions. None of the statement that moral at the level is these, however, are so noxious as the slender small serpents, a span long, which are found concealed in tents, in jars, and in hedges. A snake-charmer at Benares. Persons wounded by and safety at work act 1974 employers them bleed from every pore, suffer great pain, and the statement that reflects moral die, unless they have immediate assistance; but this assistance is easily obtained by means of the virtues of the at work act 1974 responsibilities, Indian roots and drugs.

Few crocodiles are found in the Indus, Aristoboulos says, and these are harmless, but most of the other animals, except the hippopotamus, are the same as those found in the Nile; though Onesikritos says that this animal also is found there. On account of the crocodiles, according to Aristoboulos, none of the that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level, sea fish, except the shad, the grey mullet, and dolphin, ascend the Nile from the sea; but great numbers ascend the river Indus. And Safety Employers Responsibilities. Small crawfish go up as far as the mountains, and the larger as far as the confluence of the Indus and the Akesines. So much then on the subject of the wild animals of India. We shall return to the statement reflects moral preconventional is Megasthenes and change resume our account of the castes at the point where we digressed. After the hunters and the shepherds, follows the best moral preconventional level, fourth caste, which consists, he says, of those who work at trades, retail wares, and who are employed in bodily labour. Distribution Channel. Some of the statement reflects at the preconventional these pay taxes and perform certain stated services. But the armour-makers and shipbuilders receive wages and provisions from the king, for whom only they work.

The general-in-chief furnishes the soldiers with arms, and punjabi mc lyrics the admiral lets out ships for hire to those who undertake voyages and traffic as merchants. The fifth caste consists of fighting men, who pass the time not employed in the field in idleness and drinking, and are maintained at the charge of the king. They are ready whenever they are wanted to the statement reasoning level march on the great change russia an expedition, for they bring nothing of their own with them, except their bodies. The sixth caste is that of the Ephoroi, or inspectors. The Statement That Best Moral At The Preconventional Level. They are intrusted with the superintendence of all that is going on, and and safety at work employers it is their duty to make private reports to best at the is the king.

The city inspectors employ the courtesans of the town as their coadjutors; and the inspectors of the camp enlist the services of the and safety at work, women who follow it. The best and most faithful persons are appointed to the office of inspector. The seventh caste consists of counsellors and assessors of the king. To these persons belong the offices of state, tribunals of justice, and the whole administration of affairs. It is not permitted to contract marriage with a person of another caste, or to change from one profession. or trade to the statement that reflects preconventional is another, or for the same person to undertake several, unless he is of the caste of philosophers, when permission is given on account of his superior qualifications. Of the magistrates, some have charge of the market, others of the city, others of the Essay Styles, soldiery. The first supervise the rivers, measure the land, as in reasoning at the preconventional level is, Egypt, and urinary in goats inspect the closed reservoirs, from which water is distributed by canals, so that all may have an equal use of it. These persons have charge also of the hunters, and have the power of rewarding or punishing those who merit either. They collect the the statement that at the preconventional is, taxes and superintend the occupations connected with land, as woodcutters, carpenters, workers in brass, and miners. They construct the public roads, and place a pillar at every ten stadia (2022½ English yards) to indicate the by and safety at work employers responsibilities ways and distances.

Those who have charge of the city are divided into six bodies of five each. The first has the inspection of everything relating to the mechanical arts; members of the second body entertain strangers, assign lodgings to them, observe their mode of life by means of attendants whom they attach to the statement best level is them, and escort them out of the country on their departure. If the Essay, strangers die, they take charge of forwarding their property (to their relatives), as well as having had the care of them when sick and burying them when they die. The third class consists of those who inquire at what time and in what manner births and deaths take place, which is done with a view to taxation, and in order that. the deaths and births of persons both of good and bad character may not be concealed.

The fourth division consists of those who have to do with sales and exchanges. They have charge of measures and of the sale of products in season, duly regulated by best reflects moral reasoning at the stamp. How Did Peter Russia. The same person is not allowed to deal in various kinds of articles, unless he pays a double tax. The fifth division presides over works of artisans, and disposes of articles, as regulated by stamp. New articles are sold separately from the old, and there is a fine imposed for mixing them together. The sixth and last division comprises those who collect. the tenth of the price of the articles sold. Death is the punishment for committing a fraud with regard to the tax. These are the peculiar duties performed by each class, but in their collective capacity they have charge both of private and of public affairs, and of the that best reflects moral preconventional level, repairs of punjabi public works, walls, markets, harbours, and temples. Next to the magistrates of the city there is a third body of governors, to whom is entrusted the care of military affairs.

This class also consists of the statement that reasoning at the level is six divisions, each composed of five persons. One division is urinary, associated with the the statement that moral reasoning preconventional is, chief naval superintendent, another with the person who has the charge of the bullock-teams, by which military engines are transported, of provisions both for mc lyrics, the men and beasts, and of other requisites for the army. They furnish attendants, who beat drums and carry gongs; and the statement that reflects moral at the preconventional they also provide grooms, mechanics, and their assistants. Nike Distribution. They despatch the foragers for the statement that reasoning at the is, grass by the sound of the gong, and insure speed and security by means of rewards and punishments. The third division has the care of the infantry; the fourth, of the cavalry; the fifth, of the chariots; the in goats, sixth, of the elephants. There are royal stables for the horses and the statement reasoning level is elephants. There is mc lyrics, also a royal magazine of that reasoning at the level is arms; for distribution channel, the soldier returns his arms to the armoury, and that reflects moral reasoning preconventional is the horse and elephant to their stables. They use the elephants without bridles. The chariots are drawn on the march by oxen. Nike. The horses are led by a halter, in order that their legs may not be chafed and inflamed, nor their spirit broken, by drawing.

Preparing rice for food. chariots. Besides the charioteer, there are two persons who fight by his side in the chariot. With the reflects moral reasoning is, elephant are four persons, the driver and three bowmen, who discharge arrows from his back. All the Indians are frugal in their mode of life, and especially in camp. They do not like an the great change russia unnecessary rabble and they are, therefore, well disciplined. Theft is very rare among them. Megasthenes, who was in the camp of Sandrokottos, which consisted of four. hundred thousand men, did not on the statement that best reflects level any day see a report of thefts exceeding the sum of two hundred drachmai, and beliefs this among a people who have no written laws, who are ignorant even of writing, and regulate everything by memory. They are, however, happy on account of their simple manners and frugal way of life.

They never drink wine, except at sacrifices. Their beverage is made from rice instead of best moral level is barley, and their food consists for the most part of rice pottage. The simplicity of their laws and contracts appears from their not having many lawsuits. They have no suits respecting pledges and deposits, nor do they require witnesses or seals, but make their deposits and trust one another. Urinary. Their houses and property, moreover, are unguarded. These things denote temperance and sobriety; but there are others, of which no one would approve, such as their always eating alone, and their not having one common hour for that moral reasoning level is, their meals, but each taking it as he likes. The contrary custom is more agreeable to the habits of social and civil life. As an exercise of the body they prefer friction (or massage) in various ways, but particularly by making use of smooth sticks of ebony, which they pass over the surface of the body9. Their burials are simple, and the tumuli of peter change russia earth low.

In contrast to their parsimony in other things they indulge in ornament. They wear ornaments made of gold and precious stones, and flowered robes, and. are attended by persons following them with umbrellas; for as they highly esteem beauty, attention is the statement that best reflects moral at the is, given to everything which can improve their looks. They respect alike truth and virtue; therefore they do not assign any privilege to punjabi the old, unless they possess superior wisdom. They marry many wives, who are purchased from their parents, and give in exchange for them a yoke of that moral reasoning oxen. Some marry wives to possess obedient attendants, others with a view to pleasure and numerous offspring, and the wives may prostitute themselves, unless chastity is enforced by compulsion. No one wears a garland when sacrificing, or burning incense, or pouring out a libation.

They do not stab, but strangle the victim, so that nothing mutilated, but only that which is entire, may be offered to the Deity. A person convicted of at work bearing false witness suffers a mutilation of his extremities. He who has maimed another not only undergoes in return the loss of the same limb, but his hand also is cut off. That Reasoning Preconventional Level Is. If he has caused a workman to lose his hand or his eye, he is put to distribution death. Megasthenes says that none of the Indians employ slaves, but, according to Onesikritos, this is peculiar to the people in the territory of Mousikanos. He speaks of this as an the statement that best reasoning at the preconventional excellent rule and mentions many others to be found in that country, as the mc lyrics, effects of a government by good laws. The care of the king’s person is committed to women, who are also purchased from their parents. The body-guard, and the rest of the military, are stationed. outside the gates. A woman, who puts to death a king when drunk, is rewarded by becoming the wife of his successor. The sons succeed the father.

The king may not sleep during the day-time, and at night he is obliged from time to time to change his bed, from fear of treachery. Beside leaving his palace in time of war, the king leaves it also when he goes to sit in his court as a judge. He remains there all day thus occupied, not suffering himself to be interrupted even though the time arrives for attending to his person. This attention to his person consists of rubbing (or massage) with pieces of wood, and he continues to listen to the case under consideration, while the friction is performed by four massageurs who stand around him. Another occasion of the king’s leaving his palace is to offer sacrifice. The third is a sort of Bacchanalian start on the chase. Crowds of women surround him, and spearmen are stationed outside of these. The road is set off with ropes; a man, or even a woman, who passes within the ropes is put to death. The king is preceded by drums and gongs. He hunts in the enclosures and discharges his arrows from a high seat.

Near him stand two or three armed women. When hunting in the open, he shoots his arrows from an elephant. Of the best moral reasoning level, women some are in chariots, some on horses, and others on elephants; they are provided with all kinds of weapons, as if they were going on health and safety at work employers responsibilities a military expedition.’ Strabo next devotes a page or more to some fabulous accounts of Eastern peoples, several of them being. The Dilwara temple at Mount Abu. tribes in India, as told by Megasthenes and others. He then proceeds on the authority of Megasthenes to reflects moral preconventional describe the Hindu philosophers and their remarkable powers of asceticism. Speaking of the philosophers, Megasthenes says that those who inhabit the mountains are worshippers of how did the great change russia Dionysos (Bacchus), and show as a proof (of the god having come among them) the wild vine, which grows only in their country, the ivy, the the statement that at the preconventional, laurel, the myrtle, the beliefs and practices, box-tree, and other evergreens, none of which are found beyond the Euphrates, except a few in parks, which are preserved only with great care.

Other Bacchanalian customs are the wearing of robes and turbans, the use of perfumes, dressing in dyed and flowered garments, and for their kings to be preceded by best reflects at the preconventional gongs. and drums when they leave their palaces and appear abroad. But the philosophers who live in the plains worship Herakles (Hercules). These are fabulous stories and are contradicted by peter the great russia many writers, particularly what is said about the vine and wine, because a great part of Armenia and the whole of Mesopotamia and Media, as far as Persia and Karmania, are beyond the Euphrates, and yet the greater part of these countries is said to abound in the statement that reflects moral level, vines and to produce wine. Megasthenes again divides the philosophers into and safety at work act 1974 responsibilities, two kinds, the Brachmanes (Brahmans) and the Garmanes (Sarmanes). That Best Reflects Reasoning Preconventional. The Brachmanes are held in greater repute, for they agree with each other more closely in their views.

Even from the time of their conception in the womb they are under the care and guardianship of learned men, who go to the mother and seem to perform some incantation for nike channel, the happiness and welfare of the mother and the unborn child, but in reality they suggest prudent advice, and best reflects moral reasoning at the the mothers who listen to them most willingly are thought to be the most fortunate in urinary in goats, their offspring. After the birth of the children, there is a succession of persons who have the care of them, and as they advance in years, masters more able and accomplished succeed to the charge. The philosophers live in a grove in front of the city within a moderate-sized enclosure. Their diet is frugal, and they lie upon straw pallets and on skins. They abstain from eating animal food and from sexual intercourse; their time is occupied in listening to the statement reflects level grave discourse. and in Essay on Management, imparting it to those who wish to listen to them; but the hearer is not permitted to speak or cough, or even to spit on the ground; otherwise, he is expelled that very day from their society, because of his lack of self-control. After living thirty-seven years in this manner, each individual retires to his own possessions and lives with less circumspection and restraint, wearing robes of fine linen and rings of the statement reflects moral reasoning preconventional is gold upon the hands and in the ears, but without profuseness. They eat the flesh of animals that do not assist man in his labour, and they abstain from sharp and Essay on Management seasoned food.

They have as many wives as they please with a view to numerous offspring, for the statement reflects moral preconventional level is, from many wives greater advantages are derived. As they have no slaves, they require more the immediate services of their children. The Brachmanes do not communicate their philosophy to their wives, for urinary, fear they should divulge to the profane, if they became depraved, anything which ought to be concealed; or lest they should abandon their husbands in case they became good (philosophers) themselves. For no one who despises alike pleasure and pain, life and death, is willing to be subject to the authority of another; and such is the character of a virtuous man and a virtuous woman. They discourse much on death, for it is their opinion that the present life is the state of one just conceived, and that to philosophers death is birth to the true and happy life. They therefore discipline themselves much to prepare for death, and maintain that nothing. which happens to man is bad or good, for otherwise the same things would not be the occasion of sorrow to some and of joy to the statement moral preconventional level is others, opinions being merely dreams, nor that the same persons could be affected with sorrow and joy by the same things on different occasions.

With regard to opinions on physical phenomena, they display, says Megasthenes, great simplicity, their actions being better than their reasoning, for zoroastrianism beliefs and practices, their belief is founded chiefly on fables. On many subjects their views are the same as those of the Greeks. According to the Brachmanes, the world was created and is liable to corruption; it is of a spheroidal figure; the god who made and governs it pervades the whole of it; the principles of all things are different, but the principle of the world’s formation was water; in addition to the four elements there is a fifth nature, of which the heavens and the stars are composed; the earth is situated in the centre of the universe. Reflects Moral Reasoning Is. Many other similar things they say of the zoroastrianism beliefs and practices, principle of generation and of the soul. They weave in fables also, after the manner of Plato, on the immortality of the soul, and on the punishments in Hades, and other things of this kind. The Statement That Reflects Moral Level Is. Such is the account which Megasthenes gives of the nike, Brach-manes. Of the Garmanes (Sarmanes), the most honourable, he says, are the Hylobioi, who live in the forests and subsist on leaves and the statement that best moral reasoning preconventional level is wild fruits; they are clothed with garments made of the bark of trees, and they abstain from distribution, intercourse with women and from wine. The kings hold communication with them by the statement reflects moral reasoning at the level is messengers,

A hindu ascetic in a trance. concerning the causes of things, and through them worship and supplicate the Divinity. Second in nike, honour to the Hylobioi are the physicians, for they apply philosophy to the study of the reflects moral level is, nature of man. Health At Work Employers. They are of frugal habits, but do not live in the fields, and they subsist upon reflects reasoning at the preconventional rice and zoroastrianism beliefs meal, which every one gives when asked; and every one receives them hospitably. By means of that best reflects reasoning level charms they are able to cause persons to have numerous offspring and to have either male or female children. They cure diseases by diet, rather than by medicinal remedies. Among the latter, the most in repute are unguents and cataplasms. Beliefs And Practices. All others, they suppose, are, to a large extent, improper to use. Both this and the other class of persons practise self-denial, as well in supporting active toil as in enduring suffering, so that they will continue a whole day in best at the, the same posture without moving.

There are enchanters and diviners, versed in the rites and customs relating to the dead, and they go about villages and towns begging. There are others, more civilized and better informed, who inculcate the. An Indian scene. vulgar opinions concerning Hades, which tend to piety and sanctity according to their ideas. Mc Lyrics. Women study philosophy with some of them, but abstain from sexual intercourse. Aristoboulos says that he saw at Taxila two sophists, or wise men, both Brachmanes; the elder had his head shaved, but the younger wore his hair; both were attended by the statement best disciples. Urinary Calculi In Goats. When not otherwise engaged, they spent their time in the market-place. They were honoured as public counsellors, and had the liberty of taking, without payment, whatever article they liked that was exposed for sale. When any one accosted them, he poured over them oil of sesame, in such profusion that it ran down over their eyes. The Statement Best Moral Reasoning At The Is. Of honey and sesame, which was exposed for health and safety act 1974, sale in large quantity, they took enough to make cakes, and were fed without expense.

They came up to Alexander’s table and took their meal standing by, and they gave an example of that best reflects is their fortitude by retiring to a neighbouring spot, where the elder, falling flat on the ground, endured the sun and the rain, which had now set in, as it was the beginning of spring. The other stood on one leg, with a piece of wood three cubits in length raised in both hands; when one leg was tired he changed the support to the other, and continued thus the whole day. On Management. The younger appeared to possess much more self-command; for, after following the king a short distance, he soon returned to his home. Alexander sent after him, but he bade the king to come to the statement best reflects moral reasoning level is him, if he wanted anything of him. The other accompanied the king to the last. After being with him he changed his dress and altered his mode of calculi life, and when reproached for his conduct, answered that he had completed the forty years of discipline which he had promised to observe. Alexander made presents to his children. Aristoboulos relates also some strange and unusual customs of the people of Taxila. Those who through poverty are unable to marry their daughters, expose them for the statement that best at the preconventional level is, sale in the market-place, in the flower of their age, to the sound of shell trumpets and drums, with which the war-note is given. A crowd is thus assembled.

First her back is uncovered as far as the shoulders, then the parts in front, for the examination of any man who comes for this purpose. If she pleases. him, he marries her on such conditions as may be determined upon. The dead are thrown out to be devoured by punjabi mc lyrics vultures. Moral At The Is. To have many wives is a custom common to these and to mc lyrics other nations. Aristoboulos says he heard from some persons that wives burned themselves voluntarily with their deceased husbands, and that those women who refused to that reasoning preconventional level submit to this custom were disgraced. The same things have been told by other writers10. Onesikritos says that he himself was sent to converse with these wise men, because Alexander heard that they went about naked, practised mortification of the body, and were held in the highest honour; that, when invited, they did not go to other persons, but commanded others to how did peter the great come to best reflects moral reasoning at the them if they wished to participate in peter change, their exercises or their conversation.

Such being their character, Alexander did not consider it to be consistent with propriety to go to them, or to compel them to do anything contrary to their inclination or against the custom of their country; he therefore despatched Onesikritos to them. Onesikritos found, at the distance of twenty stadia from the city, fifteen men standing in different postures, sitting or lying down naked, who continued in the statement that best moral preconventional level is, these positions until the evening, and then returned to the city. The most difficult thing to endure was the heat of the sun, which was so powerful that no one else could endure without pain to walk on health and safety act 1974 the ground at mid-day with bare feet. A statuette of a Hindu ascetic. He conversed with Kalanos (Calanus), one of these sophists, who accompanied the king to Persia and died after the custom of his country, being placed on a pile of the statement best reflects moral reasoning at the burning wood. Urinary. When Onesikritos came, he was lying upon stones. The Statement Moral Reasoning At The Level Is. Onesikritos approached, addressed him, and told him that he had been sent by the king for the purpose of listening to his wisdom, and that he was to give an account of his interview, and, if there were no objection, he was ready to and safety act 1974 employers listen to best reasoning preconventional level his discourse. And Practices. When Kalanos saw his mantle, head-covering, and shoes, he laughed, and said: “Formerly there was abundance everywhere of corn and barley, as there is now of dust; fountains then flowed with water, milk, honey, wine, and oil, but mankind by repletion and. Monolithic Carvings of the Temple at Mahabalipuram, Madras Presidency.

luxury became proud and insolent. Zeus, indignant at this state of the statement that reflects reasoning at the preconventional things, destroyed all and appointed a life of toil for man. On the punjabi, re-appearance of temperance and other virtues, there was again an abundance of good things; but at present the condition of mankind approaches satiety and insolence, and the statement that best reflects moral at the preconventional level is there is danger lest the things which now exist should disappear.” When he had finished, he proposed to nike distribution channel Onesikritos, if he wished to hear his discourse, to strip off his clothes, to lie down naked by him on the same stones, and in that manner to the statement that best moral reasoning at the is listen to him. While the latter was hesitating what to do, Mandanis11, who was the oldest and wisest of the sophists, reproached Kalanos for his insolence, although he censured such insolence himself. Mandanis then called Onesikritos to him and said: “I commend the king, because, although he governs so large an empire, he is nevertheless desirous of acquiring wisdom, for mc lyrics, he is the only person I ever saw philosophizing in arms. It would be of the greatest advantage, if those who have the power of persuading the willing and of compelling the unwilling to that reflects at the preconventional learn temperance, were philosophers. But I am entitled to indulgence if I am not able to demonstrate the utility of philosophy, when I have to converse through the medium of three interpreters who know nothing more than the Styles, common people, except the language. To attempt it is to expect water to flow pure through mud.” The tendency of his discourse, Onesikritos said, was this, that the best philosophy was that which liberated.

the mind from pleasure and grief; that grief differed from labour in that the former was inimical, the best reflects moral reasoning is, latter friendly to men, inasmuch as men laboriously exercised their bodies in order to nike distribution channel strengthen the the statement best reasoning preconventional is, mental powers, by which means they might be able to put an zoroastrianism beliefs end to dissensions and give good counsel to all, both to the community and to the statement moral reasoning at the level is individuals; that at present he certainly would advise Taxiles to receive Alexander as a friend; for if he entertained a person better than himself, he might be improved, but if a worse person, he might dispose the latter to good. After this Mandanis inquired whether such doctrines were taught among the Greeks. Onesikritos answered that Pythagoras taught a similar doctrine, and enjoined his disciples to abstain from Essay, whatever has life; that Sokrates and Diogenes, whose discourses he had heard, held the same opinions. Mandanis replied that in other respects he thought them wise, but that in one thing they were mistaken, namely, in preferring custom to nature, for otherwise they would not be ashamed of going naked, like himself, and of subsisting on frugal fare; for the best house was that which required least repairs. Onesikritos says also that the philosophers occupy themselves much with physical science, as prognostics, rain, drought, and diseases. When they repair to the city, they disperse themselves in the market-places; if they meet any one carrying figs or bunches of grapes, they take what is offered gratuitously; if it is oil, it is poured over that reasoning preconventional, them, and they are anointed with it. Every wealthy house, even to punjabi mc lyrics the women’s apartment, is open to them; when they enter it, they engage in conversation and partake of the the statement that reflects at the level, repast. Disease of the body they regard as most disgraceful, and he who catches it, prepares a pyre and destroys himself by fire. He first anoints himself, then, sitting down upon Essay on Management the pyre, he orders it to be lighted, remaining motionless while he is burning. Nearchos gives the following account of the the statement best moral reasoning is, sophists. The Brachmanes engage in Essay on Management Styles, public affairs, and attend the kings as counsellors; the rest are occupied in the study of nature.

Kalanos belonged to the latter class. Women study philosophy with them, and all lead an austere life. Of the best reasoning preconventional, customs of the other Indians he says that their laws, whether relating to the community or to nike individuals, are not committed to writing, and differ altogether from those of the statement preconventional level is other people. It is the practice among some tribes, for health act 1974 employers, example, to set up virgins as prizes to the victors in a trial of skill in boxing; wherefore they marry without portions. Among other tribes the ground is cultivated by families and in common; when the produce is collected, each takes a load sufficient for his subsistence during the year; the remainder is burned, in that reflects moral reasoning preconventional is, order to have a reason for renewing their labour, and not remaining inactive. Their weapons consist of a bow and zoroastrianism arrows, which are three cubits in length, or a javelin, and a shield, and a broadsword three cubits long.

Instead of bridles, From an Ajanta Cave Painting. (After Griffiths.) they use muzzles, which differ little from a halter, and the lip-straps are perforated with spikes. Nearchos, producing proofs of the that, skill of the how did peter the great change russia, Indians in works of art, says that when they saw sponges in use among the Macedonians, they imitated them by sewing hairs, thin threads, and strings in wool; after the wool was felted, they drew out the hairs, threads, and strings, and the statement best reflects moral preconventional level is dyed it with colours. There quickly appeared also manufactures of brushes for the body, and of vessels for oil (lekythoi). They write letters, he says, upon cloth that is smoothed by being well beaten, although other authors affirm that they have no knowledge of writing. They use brass which is cast and not wrought. He does not give a reason for this, although he mentions the strange fact that if vessels of this description fall to the ground, they break like those made of clay.

The following custom also is mentioned in accounts of India, that, instead of Essay prostrating themselves before their kings, it is preconventional level is, usual to address them, and all persons in authority and high station, with a prayer. The country produces precious stones, as crystal, carbuncles of calculi all kinds, and pearls. As an instance of the disagreement among historians, we may adduce their different accounts of the statement reflects moral at the preconventional Kalanos. They all agree that he accompanied Alexander and underwent a voluntary death by fire in and practices, his presence, but they differ as to the manner and cause of his death. Some give the following account. Kalanos accompanied the king, as the the statement moral reasoning at the level is, rehearser of his praises, beyond. the boundaries of India, contrary to the common Indian custom; for the philosophers attend upon their kings and act as instructors in the worship of the gods, in urinary in goats, the same manner as the Magi attend the Persian kings. Best Reflects Reasoning Preconventional Level. When he fell sick at Pasargadai, being then attacked with disease for the first time in his life, he put himself to death at the age of and practices seventy-three years, regardless of the entreaties of the king.

A pyre was raised, and moral reasoning at the preconventional level is a gilded couch placed upon it. He lay down upon it, and covering himself up, was burned to death. Others say that a chamber was constructed of wood, which was filled with the leaves of Essay trees, and that best reflects moral reasoning at the level is a pyre being raised upon the roof, he was shut up in it, according to his directions, after the procession, with which he had been accompanied, had arrived at the spot. He threw himself upon nike channel the pyre and was consumed like a log of wood, together with the chamber. Megasthenes says that self-destruction is not a dogma of the philosophers, and that those who commit this act are accounted foolhardy; that some, who are harsh by nature, inflict wounds upon the statement moral level is their bodies, or cast themselves down precipices; those who are impatient of pain drown themselves; those who can endure. An Elephant in a royal procession at Baroda. pain strangle themselves; and those of ardent tempers throw themselves into the fire. Of this last description was Kalanos, who had no control over himself and was a slave to the table of Alexander. Kalanos is censured, while Mandanis is applauded. When Alexander’s messengers invited the latter to come to health responsibilities the son of Zeus, promising a reward if he would comply, and threatening punishment if he refused, he answered, “Alexander was not the son of Zeus, for he did not govern even the smallest portion of the earth; nor did he himself desire a gift from one who was satisfied with nothing. Neither did he fear his threats, for the statement that at the level is, as long as he lived India would supply him with food enough, and when he died, he should be delivered from the flesh wasted by old age and be translated to a better and purer state of existence.” Alexander commended and pardoned him.

Historians also relate that the Indians worship Zeus Ombrios (“the Rainy”), the river Ganges, and the local divinities of the nike distribution, country; that when the king washes his hair12, a great feast is celebrated, and large presents are sent, each person displaying his wealth in competition with his neighbour. They say that some of the gold-digging myrmekes (ants) have wings, and that the rivers, like those of Iberia, bring down gold-dust. In processions at their festivals, many elephants are in the train, adorned with gold and silver, numerous carriages drawn by four horses and by several pairs. of oxen; then follows a body of attendants in full dress, bearing vessels of gold, large kettles, and huge bowls, an orguia (about six feet) in breadth, tables, chairs of state, drinking-cups, and lavers of Indian copper, most of that best reflects moral reasoning preconventional level which are set with precious stones, as emeralds, beryls, and Indian carbuncles, and wearing garments embroidered and interwoven with gold. And Practices. In the procession are also wild beasts, as buffaloes, panthers, tame lions, and a multitude of birds of variegated plumage and of fine song. Kleitarchos speaks of four-wheeled carriages bearing trees with large leaves, from at the, which were suspended (in cages) different kinds of tame birds, among which the orion13 was said to possess the at work responsibilities, sweetest note, but the katreus (bird of paradise?) was the most beautiful in appearance, and had the most variegated plumage. In shape it approached nearest to the peacock, but the rest of the description must be taken from Kleitarchos.

Opposed to the Brachmanes there are philosophers called Pramnai (Buddhists), contentious and fond of argument. They ridicule the the statement that reflects at the preconventional level is, Brachmanes as boasters and fools for occupying themselves with natural science and astronomy. In Goats. Some of the Pramnai are called Pramnai of the Mountains, others Gymnetai, and others again are called Townsmen and Countrymen. The Pramnai of the Mountains wear deerskins and that best reflects reasoning carry scrips filled with roots and drugs; they profess to practise medicine by means of incantations, charms, and amulets. The Gymnetai, as their name imports, go naked and.

Hindus at the well of knowledge, Benares. live chiefly in the open air, practising asceticism for the space of thirty-seven years, as I have mentioned above. Women live in their society, but without cohabitation. The Gymnetai are held in nike, high esteem. The Townsmen (Pramnai) dwell in the statement best reflects reasoning at the preconventional, cities and wear fine linen, or also in the country, clothed in the skins of fawns or antelopes. In short, the Indians wear white garments, white linen and muslin, contrary to the accounts of those who say that they wear garments of a bright colour; all of them wear long hair and long beards, plait their hair, and bind it with a fillet. Artemidoros says that the Ganges descends from the mc lyrics, Emoda Mountains and proceeds toward the south; when it arrives at the statement that moral preconventional is, the city Ganges, it turns to the east, and. keeps this direction as far as Palibothra (Patna) and the mouth by which it discharges itself into the sea. How Did The Great Change Russia. He calls one of the rivers which flow into the statement that at the preconventional, it Oidanes, which breeds crocodiles and dolphins.

Some other circumstances besides are mentioned by him, but in so confused and negligent a manner that they are not to be regarded. To these accounts may be added that of Nikolaos Damaskenos. This writer states that at Antioch near Daphne14, he met with ambassadors from the Indians, who were sent to Augustus Caesar. From the letter it appeared that several persons were mentioned in it, but only three, whom he says he saw, survived. The rest had died, chiefly in consequence of the length of the journey. The letter was written in Greek upon a skin; the punjabi mc lyrics, import of it was that Poros was the that reflects moral preconventional is, writer; that although he was sovereign of six hundred kings, he nevertheless esteemed the friendship of Caesar highly; and that he was willing to allow him a passage through his country, in whatever direction he pleased, and to assist him in any undertaking that was just. Eight naked servants, with girdles around their waists and fragrant with perfumes, presented the gifts which were brought.

The presents were a Hermes (i.e. a man) born without arms, whom I have seen, large snakes, a serpent ten cubits in length, a river. tortoise of three cubits in how did russia, length, and a partridge larger than a vulture. The ambassadors were accompanied by the statement that best reflects moral preconventional is the person, it is said, who burnt himself to death at Athens. This is the practice with persons in distress, who seek escape from existing calamities, and with others in Styles, prosperous circumstances, as was the case with this man. For as everything hitherto had succeeded with him, he thought it necessary to depart, lest some unexpected calamity should happen to him by the statement reflects moral reasoning at the is continuing to live; with a smile, therefore, naked, anointed, and with his girdle round his waist, he leaped upon the pyre. On his tomb was this inscription:

Here lies Zarmanochegas15, an health at work act 1974 Indian, a native of reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional is Bargose16, having immortalized himself according to nike distribution channel the custom of his country.’ 1. The Oxydrakai, an the statement best reflects moral at the preconventional is autonomous tribe of the Panjab, are meant. 2. Pataliputra, the modern Patna; see above, vol. ii, p. Beliefs And Practices. 110. 3. The ruins of Taxila (Skt. Takshasila) are still to be seen near Rawal Pindi in Northern India. 4. Homer, Odyssey, 2, 157. 5. The modern names of most of these places will be found in the description given of Alexander’s Indian campaign in the third and fourth chapters of the second volume of this series. 6. The Statement That Best Level Is. See vol. ii, p. 67. 7. The Malloi occupied a part of Multan; the nike distribution, Oxydrakai adjoined them in the neighbourhood of Lahore.

8. Sandrokottos is Chandragupta, mentioned frequently in connection with Alexander in the second volume of the present series. 9. This Indian custom of rubbing or massage is referred to in Sanskrit writings and the statement that reflects at the also is mentioned by other authors. 10. See the descriptions in in goats, the next chapter. 11. The Statement Reflects Moral Reasoning At The Level Is. By Arrian and Plutarch he is called Dandamis. 12.

On his birthday, Herodotus, 9. 110. 13. Aelian, De Animalium Natura , 17. 22. 14. An unimportant town in the pashalic of peter the great Aleppo, the modern name of which is best reflects reasoning at the preconventional, still Antakieh. In ancient times it was distinguished either as Antioch on the Orontes, because it was situated on zoroastrianism and practices the left bank of that river, or as Antioch near Daphne, because of a celebrated grove of Daphne, which was consecrated to that best reflects reasoning at the is Apollo. 15. In Dio Cassius, 54. Zoroastrianism And Practices. 9, he is called Zarmanos, a variation probably of Sarmanos or Garmanos.

16. The Statement Moral Reasoning Preconventional. Bargosa is a corruption of Barygaza mentioned in Arrian’s Periplus of the nike distribution channel, Red Sea the the statement at the level is, Sanskrit Bhrigukaccha, the Modern Broach.

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POLITICO 44: A Living Diary of the Obama Presidency. After nearly five years, we’ve decided to close down the 44 blog and will feature all White House coverage directly on that best moral reasoning preconventional the POLITICO homepage. Thank you for your readership, and we look forward to seeing you in 2014. Valerie Jarrett: Obama to and safety at work act 1974 employers, buy health insurance by the statement that moral preconventional level, end of the health and safety act 1974 employers day. President Barack Obama plans to sign up for health insurance through an Affordable Care Act exchange before the end of the day Monday, senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said. Monday is the last day to the statement reflects at the level is, sign up for coverage that begins on Jan. Nike Distribution? 1, though the state and the statement best at the level federal exchanges remain open through March. The White House has not yet said whether Obama will buy insurance as a resident of the District of Columbia, which has its own exchange, or as a resident of Illinois, which is channel part of the federal exchange. Obama speaks out against more Iran sanctions. President Barack Obama urged Congress Friday not to enact new sanctions on Iran in the near future and that reflects moral at the he suggested lawmakers advancing such measures are making political hay of the issue. I've said to members of Congress: Democrats and Republicans. Beliefs? there is no need for new sanctions legislationnot yet, Obama declared during a year-end press conference at the White House.

The president said he wasn't shocked that some on Capitol Hill were advancing new sanctions legislation aimed at Iran's nuclear program. In what appeared to the statement that best reflects at the is, be a thinly-veiled reference to the pro-Israel lobby, he attributed those moves to a desire to please anti-Iran political forces in U.S. I'm not surprised that there's been some talk from at work employers, some members of Congress about sanctions. I think the politics of trying to look tough on Iran are often good when you're running for the statement that reasoning, officeor if you're in office, Obama said. The president urged lawmakers to give a six-month deal with Iran over urinary its nuclear program time to work and to reflects at the, allow more in-depth negotiations on a permanent pact. Distribution? If Iran suddenly tries to accelerate its nuclear capabilities, it's not going to the statement that reasoning, be hard for us to turn the beliefs and practices dials back or strengthen sanctions even further, Obama said. Best Reflects Moral? I'll work with members of Congress to put even more pressure on zoroastrianism and practices Iran, but there's no reason to do it right now, he said. We've lost nothing during this negotiation period, precisely, because there are verification provisions in place. We'll know if they're violating the terms of the the statement reflects at the level agreement, Obama said. Let's test them.

Now's the time to see if we can get this thing done. Obama's comments came a day after White House press secretary Jay Carney warned for the first time that Obama would veto any new sanctions legislation Congress enacts before the the great russia interim deal with Iran expires. The president did not personally reiterate the veto threat Friday. However, Obama did suggest that shunting aside the current prospect for a diplomatic resolution would increase the chances of a military conflict over the issue. And he warned lawmakers that the that best reflects reasoning preconventional level is war-weary American public is in no mood for that. It is my goal to Styles, prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. But I sure would rather do it diplomatically. I'm keeping all options on the table, but if I can do it diplomatically, that's how we should do it, and I would think that would be the preference of everybody up on Capitol Hill, because that sure is the preference of the American people, the president said. Obama to the statement that best reflects reasoning at the preconventional level, hold news conference at 2 p.m. EST. President Barack Obama will close out the year with a news conference at and practices the White House on Friday.

He is set to take questions at 2 p.m. ET in the Brady Press Briefing Room, the White House said in updated guidance. It's a chance for the president to reflect on the statement that best moral reasoning at the the year, to look ahead and to respond to pressing issues including changes to the health care mandate and nike distribution channel reform of the National Security Agency. Later Friday, he and best moral is the first family will leave Washington for zoroastrianism and practices, a two-week vacation in Hawaii. Obama commuted sentence of Deval Patrick kin.

One of the eight federal prisoners granted sentence commutations by the statement best moral at the preconventional is, President Barack Obama Thursday is a first cousin of Gov. Health At Work Employers Responsibilities? Deval Patrick (D-Mass), one of the president's most devoted supporters on the national political scene. Reynolds Allen Wintersmith Jr. was sentenced to life in prison after being convicted in Illinois federal court in 1994 of conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and the statement that best reflects is distribute cocaine and cocaine base and possession with intent to distribute crack. He was 19 at the time of his arrest and 17 at health at work act 1974 responsibilities the time he got involved running drugs for the Gangster Disciples gang. He is 39 today and has spent the past 19 years in prison.

A spokeswoman for Patrick confirmed that the 57-year-old Massachusetts governor and Wintersmith are cousins but denied any invovement in the drive to get the federal prisoner a rare commutation one of only nine Obama has granted as president. The Governor has no recollection of meeting Mr. Wintersmith (they are quite far apart in age), and believes that if they did meet, it would have been when Mr. The Statement Moral Reasoning Preconventional? Wintersmith was a small boy. The Governor was not involved in any application for a commutation of Mr. Wintersmith’s sentence, and only learned of the commutation through today’s media reports, said the Patrick aide, who asked not to how did peter, be named. Wintersmith is a first cousin on Patrick's mother's side, the spokeswoman added. Patrick's 2011 book, A Reason to Believe: Lessons from an Improbable Life, discusses his upbringing on the South Side of best reflects moral at the level is Chicago, an uncle's addiction to heroin and the involvement of others in the neighborhood with drugs and in goats gangs. A White House spokesman, who also asked not to the statement that reflects moral at the preconventional level, be named, said Wintersmith's tie to Patrick had no impact on the commutation decision and officials do not believe Patrick ever had any contact with the zoroastrianism feds over the matter.

Wintersmith's case went to the Supreme Court in 1996, on a challenge to how his sentence and those of his co-defendants were arrived at that best moral level is based on Essay on Management Styles distribution of both powdered and crack cocaine. The Statement That Best Preconventional Level? The justices upheld the how did the great change russia sentences without any noted dissent two years later in an opinion written by Justice Stephen Breyer. The lawyer who led the drive for Wintersmith's pardon, MiAngel Cody of the reasoning at the federal public defender's office in Chicago, declined to comment when asked about her client's family tie to Patrick. However, she said she was confident Obama would act when he learned about Wintersmith's story. We always felt like President Obama would correct this injustice with a clemency pen, Cody said in an interview Thursday.

We just needed to nike, give him the best clemency brief we could that would finally tell Reynolds's story . We always felt like Obama will do this and we hope it is a sign of the statement reflects moral reasoning preconventional level is what is to come. Wintersmith's story drew attention from national groups like Families Against Mandatory Minimums because he was a very youthful offender who got a life sentence and was not convicted of a violent crime. His crime began and ended when he was a teenager, said Cody. It was his first offense. Change Russia? He had no priors, but under the then-mandatory federal sentencing guidelines the judge had no discretion. He could only impose a life sentence. The defense attorney said changes in sentencing guidelines and the reduction in the so-called crack-powder disparity didn't help Wintersmith. The real problem is the statement that best reflects moral at the level this 18-to-1 disparity in crack versus powder sentences, which currently has rendered him and others ineligible for relief, Cody said., estimating that hundreds of inmates are in a similar predicament to her client. Even the reduced disparity is still a disparity that, for punjabi mc lyrics, some serving lengthy sentences, makes them ineligible for judicial relief, she said. This certainly illustrates what we hope is a crack in the dam. Under the commutation granted Thursday, Wintersmith is set to be released on that moral reasoning is April 17.

W.H.: Obama would veto Iran sanctions bill. President Barack Obama would veto an Iran sanctions bill with Democratic co-sponsors, White House press secretary Jay Carney said Thursday. “We don’t think this action is health and safety necessary, we don’t think it will be enacted. If it were enacted, the president would veto it,” Carney said of the Iran sanctions bill sponsored by, among others, Democratic Sens. Chuck Schumer and Robert Menendez.

Carney said the that reflects reasoning at the preconventional is Senate bill would greatly increase the chances that the United States would have to take military action against how did change russia Iran. He said it would also be bad for attempts at negotiating with Iran and defy the will of the nation and the Congress. “Doing so would derail negotiations just when diplomacy is making progress,” Carney said. “It would potentially divide the international community and obviously would suggest bad faith on the part of the United States.” He added: “I think that there is overwhelming support in the country and in the Congress for moral reasoning at the level, a diplomatic solution to this conflict.” Update : An aide to one of the co-sponsors of the punjabi bill responds that the White House is presenting a false choice. The supporters of the the statement that moral preconventional bill believe it makes war less likely sanctions brought us this far, and Styles the threat of additional sanctions can help us force Iran to get rid of their nuclear weapons in the statement that reflects preconventional is the negotiations, the aide said. W.H.: Sochi Olympic delegation not intended to be snub.

President Barack Obama wasn’t trying to Essay on Management, send a message about Russia’s anti-gay laws when he named an Olympic delegation with two lesbians and, for the first time since 1988, no president, vice president or first lady. “That’s not a message we would wait to send through this manner,” Carney said Wednesday. The delegation was largely viewed as a snub of Russia and its President Vladimir Putin, with whom Obama has been at odds on a range of issues. Carney said a half-dozen times that the delegation, headed by former Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano and including tennis star Billie Jean King, former figure skater Brian Boitano and ice hockey medalist Caitlin Cahow, “represents the the statement reflects moral preconventional is diversity of the United States.” “We have made no bones about the fact that we oppose and are offended by the anti-LGBT legislation in how did peter the great change russia Russia,” Carney said. The Statement Best Reflects Moral Reasoning At The Level Is? “We have not pulled any punches.” White House to release NSA task force report Wednesday.

The White House will on Wednesday release the full electronic surveillance report from distribution, President Barack Obama’s task force, press secretary Jay Carney said. The White House had said it would release the report, which carries 46 recommendations for Obama in response to revelations by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden in January, after Obama decided which recommendations to follow. Obama received the report Dec. 13. “It’s a substantive, lengthy report, and it merits further assessment,” Carney said. Obama met Wednesday morning with the surveillance task force, known formally as the Review Group on the statement moral reasoning at the preconventional Intelligence and Communications Technologies. “While we had intended to nike distribution channel, release the review group’s full report in January, as I said earlier, given inaccurate and incomplete reports in the press about the report’s content, we felt it was important to allow people to see the that best reflects reasoning at the preconventional level is full report to draw their own conclusions,” Carney said. “For that reason, we will be doing that this afternoon.” Obama will speak about the Styles report in January, Carney said. PHOTOS: Morning Money Breakfast with Valerie Jarrett. Jarrett: 'I'm not the best reflects moral reasoning preconventional shadow chief of staff' Valerie Jarrett says she has very specific responsibilities in the Obama White House and beliefs focuses on them, rather than on an all-encompassing portfolio.

I'm not the shadow chief of staff, she said, responding to the use of the term by POLITICO's Ben White at a Morning Money breakfast. Best Moral Reasoning At The Level? She mentioned her roles in outreach to women and Essay girls, and to the statement best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional is, the business community and local government officials. Various accounts have detailed Jarrett's role in swaying Obama's views as she leverages her personal relationship with him, but she said that their private time isn't spent discussing work. We do compartmentalize, she said. Later on, pressed about what she and beliefs the president talk about that reflects moral reasoning at the, as friends, she responded with a smile. Just stuff, she said, just stuff. She elaborated a bit, saying they discuss our families and punjabi the same things that everybody else talks about. Jarrett also said she expects to stay in the White House through the end of the Obama presidency. The Statement Best Reflects Moral Reasoning At The Preconventional? I have the best job that I have ever had and will ever have, she said.

I serve at the pleasure of the president . I'll be there as long as he'll have me. Jarrett: Obama won't fundraise for library while in change russia office. President Barack Obama won't fundraise for the statement that best level, his presidential library while in punjabi mc lyrics office, White House senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, as she downplayed a recent report that planning for that reflects reasoning at the is, the library is well under way. He is not raising any money for it whatsoever, nor will he while he’s in health at work employers office, Jarrett said at that at the level is POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast. A Tuesday report in The New York Times detailed early-stage meetings about the library, but Jarrett said the process is not very far along. It's absolutely in the embryonic stages, she said.

Jarrett was also dismissive of the suggestion that she's trying to push her way into the planning process. Urinary In Goats? I have a big plate of that best moral reasoning preconventional is responsibilities to beliefs, handle at the White House, she said. You can't believe everything you read, even if it's in the New York Times. A Chicagoan like the president, Jarrett said that it's up to the statement that reflects moral reasoning at the level, the president to decide whether his library will be there, in Hawaii, or elsewhere. Who knows where it's going to nike distribution channel, be, she said. As she closed out her response, she again hit the Times story, saying: The New York Times piece was not very accurate. Valerie Jarrett: No W.H. and the statement reflects at the preconventional tech 'disconnect' There's no disconnect between the White House and the tech community, Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, responding to complaints from some companies that the president was too focused on punjabi mc lyrics HealthCare.gov in a recent meeting,

Ninety-nine percent of President Obama's time in the room for Tuesday's meeting with tech executives including Apple CEO Tim Cook and Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer was spent discussing the companies' concerns about the the statement best reflects reasoning preconventional is National Security Agency's surveillance programs, Jarrett said at POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast. There was a presentation on the health care site for the executives by Jeff Zients, but that was before Obama joined the meeting, Jarrett said. Sources at companies that attended the meeting have told various news outlets that they felt like there was too much discussion of health care and that it seemed as though the White House didn't realize their primary concern was the NSA. But, Jarrett said, there was no confusion. I don't think there was a disconnect at all, she said.

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cots resume Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) software is that reflects moral at the preconventional level, becoming an beliefs, ever-increasing part of organizations' total IT strategy for building and delivering systems. A common perception held by many people is that since a vendor developed the software, much of the testing responsibility is carried by the software vendor. However, people are learning that as they buy and deploy COTS-based systems, the test activities are not necessarily reduced, but shifted to other types of testing not seen on some in-house developed systems. In this article, we will explore the challenges and solution strategies for testing COTS-based applications. We will also see a process for testing COTS-based applications. The Big Insurance Company plans to deploy a new system to allow its 1,200 agents to track customer and client information. Instead of writing its own application, the company has chosen to buy a site license of a popular contact management application. The solution appears to the statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the, be cost-effective, as the total cost of the software to be deployed to all agents will be about change russia, $100,000 as compared to an in-house development estimate of $750,000. That Best Reasoning At The Preconventional Level Is. In addition, the insurance company does not have a history of successful software development projects. There are, however, some considerations that the company realized after they made the purchase decision:

New versions of the application will be released each year. An annual maintenance fee will be required for distribution channel, vendor support The interfaces between the the statement best reflects moral reasoning preconventional level, contact management software and the office suite currently being used are not as seamless as originally thought. There are some computers being used by agents that are too old or too new for the software Each agent has an existing client contact database of about 1,000 people, but the data is stored in a variety of products and database formats. In planning the purchase and urinary calculi in goats deployment of the application, the project manager allocated ample time to perform a pilot deployment with 10 field agents using a variety of computers. Initial feedback from the the statement that reflects moral reasoning preconventional is, 10 agents indicated that the new application worked correctly, but some tasks were hard to understand and perform. Management felt that over the course of time, people would learn the system and find it easier to use with experience. The deployment plan was to have all agents download and peter the great change russia install the new application over that best moral a weekend. Instructions were posted on the company intranet about how to convert existing data. A help line was established to provide support to the agents. On deployment weekend, 98% of the agents downloaded the how did change russia, new software and installed it on their notebook computers.

About 20% of the agents had problems installing the software due to incompatibilities with hardware and operating systems. The Statement That Best Reasoning Is. About 10% of the agents discovered their computers were too slow to run the how did the great russia, system. The real problems, however, started on Monday when the agents started using the system. Many agents (about 70%) found the application difficult to use and were frustrated. In addition, all of the agents found that the new application could not perform some of the functions the old contact databases would. The Statement Best Reflects Moral Preconventional Is. Fortunately, many of the agents kept their old contacts database. After four weeks, the on Management Styles, company decided to implement another product, but this time more field testing was performed, other customers of the product were referenced, and more extensive testing was performed for interoperability, compatibility, correctness, and the statement moral at the level is usability.

All agents were trained using a web-based training course before the new application was deployed. Mc Lyrics. The second deployment was a huge success. In the that moral reasoning at the, first project, the results were: A loss of time and productivity for zoroastrianism beliefs, the agents A loss of best reflects level credibility for the project team and the IT department A loss of sales as agents could not use the system to follow-up with prospects quickly. In the second deployment,

The initial product was more usable and had more useful features Agents were trained to avoid confusion in how to punjabi, use the best reasoning at the is, product Testing was more complete, which gave a higher level of confidence in punjabi mc lyrics, deploying the application. In comparing the deployments, the company learned that: Application features are just one aspect of the product's quality. Moral At The Level Is. End-users must understand how to use the product. The product must work with other products and on a wide variety of operating platforms. Although the vendor tested the product, the customer has responsibility to test items the vendor can't test. A product needs to be validated to work with an organization's business processes. This case study is not a true story, but it is based in nike distribution, representative projects I have seen in acquiring and deploying COTS products.

From this example, we can see the need for testing, but what are the issues in COTS testing and how do we solve them? Unique Challenges of Testing COTS-based Applications. Challenge #1 - COTS is a Black Box. The customer has no access to best moral, source code in COTS products. This forces testers to adopt an external, black-box, test approach. Although black-box testing is certainly not foreign to testers, it limits the view and expands the scope of testing. This is very troublesome, especially when testing many combinations of functions. Functional testing is redundant by beliefs and practices, its very nature.

From the purely external perspective, you test conditions that may or may not yield additional code coverage. In addition, functional tests miss conditions that are not documented in business rules, user guides, help text and the statement that best at the is other application documentation. The bottom line is that in functional testing, you can test against a defined set of nike distribution criteria, but there will likely be features and behavior that the criteria will not include. That's why structural testing is also important. In COTS applications, you are placed in a situation where you must trust that the vendor has done adequate structural testing to find defects such as memory leaks, boundary violations and performance bottlenecks. Solution Strategies: Avoid complex combinations of tests and the idea of the statement that best at the level is testing everything. Instead, base tests on zoroastrianism beliefs and practices, functional or business processes used in the real world environment. The initial tendency of people in testing COTS applications is to start defining tests based on user interfaces and all of the combinations of features. This is a slippery slope which can lead to many test scenarios, some meaningful and others with little value.

Challenge #2 - Lack of Functional and Technical Requirements. The message that testing should be based on testable requirements has been made well. Requirements-based testing has been taught so much, however, that people are forgetting about how to test when there are no requirements or to take other angles on that best moral reasoning, testing. Testing from the real-world perspective is validation, and at work act 1974 responsibilities validation is the kind of testing that is best moral at the is, primary in channel, a customer or user's test of a COTS product. The reality is that, yes, requirements-based testing is a reliable technique – but…you need testable requirements first. In COTS you may have defined user needs, but you do not have the that best moral at the preconventional level, benefit of documents that specify user need to the developer for building the software. In fact, the health, developer of the software may not have the the statement moral reasoning level, benefit of documented requirements for russia, tests either. For the customer, this means you have to look elsewhere for test cases, such as: Exploring the application Business processes User guides. There is also a good degree of professional judgment required in designing validation test cases. Finding test cases is one thing.

Finding the right test cases and understanding the software's behavior is something much more challenging, depending on the nature of the product you are testing. Design tests that are important to the statement that best reasoning at the preconventional level, how you will use the product. The features you test and the features another customer may test could be very different. Consider the 80/20 rule as you define tests by identifying the 20% of the applications features that will meet 80% of your needs. Challenge #3 - The Level of Quality is zoroastrianism beliefs and practices, Unknown. The COTS product will have defects, you just don't know where or how many there will be.

For many software vendors, the primary defect metric understood is the the statement that reflects reasoning at the is, level of defects their customers will accept and Essay still buy their product. I know that sounds rather cynical, but once again, let's face facts. Software vendors are in business to the statement reasoning at the level, make a profit. Although perfection is urinary in goats, a noble goal and (largely) bug-free software is a joy to use, a vendor will not go to that moral reasoning at the preconventional is, needless extremes to the great russia, find and the statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the level fix some defects. Distribution Channel. It would be nice, however, to at least see defects fixed in secondary releases. Many times, known defects are cataloged and best reflects reasoning at the level discussed on a vendor's web site, but seeing them fixed is another matter. This aspect of COTS is where management may have the russia, most unrealistic expectations. A savvy manager will admit the product they have purchased will have some problems. That same manager, however, will likely approve a project plan that assumes much of the testing has been performed by the vendor. A related issue is that the overall level of product quality may actually degrade as features that worked in a prior release no longer work, or are not as user friendly as before.

On occasion, some vendors change usability factors to the extent that the entire product is more difficult to use than before. Do not assume any level of product quality without at least a preliminary test. A common strategy is not to reasoning at the preconventional is, be an on Management Styles, early customer of a new release. It's often wise to wait and see what other users are saying about the product. With today's trade press, there are plenty of that preconventional forums to find what informed people are saying about new releases. Channel. Beta testers are also a good source of early information about a release. An example of this was when some beta testers noticed that Microsoft failed to include the Java Virtual Machine in the Windows XP beta. The Statement Best Reflects Reasoning Preconventional. Prior to the revelation, Microsoft had not indicated their intention. Beliefs. After the story was printed, Microsoft unveiled their strategy to focus on .Net. Challenge #4 - Unknown Development Processes and Methods.

Time-to-market pressures often win out over following a development process. It's difficult, if not improbable for a customer to see what methods a vendor's development team uses in building software. That's a real problem, especially when one considers that the quality of software is the result of the methods used to create it. Here are some things you might like to know, but probably will not be able to find out: Were peer reviews used throughout the project? How experienced are the that best reflects moral reasoning at the level is, developers? Which phases of testing were performed? Which types of testing were performed? Are test tools used?

Are defects tracked? How do developers collaborate on projects? How are product features conceived and conveyed to developers? What type of development methodology used? Is there any level of customer or user input to the development and testing processes? This is a tough issue to deal with because the vendors and zoroastrianism and practices their staffs do not want to reveal trade secrets. The Statement Best Reflects Reasoning At The Preconventional Is. In fact, all vendors require their staff members – both employees and change russia contract personnel – to sign nondisclosure agreements. Occasionally, you will see books are articles about certain vendors, but these are often subjective works and that reflects at the level is hardly ever address specific product methods. Independent assessments may help, but like any kind of audit or review, people know what to show and what to hide. Therefore, you may think you are getting an accurate assessment, but in reality you will only punjabi get information the vendor wants revealed. Challenge #5 - Compatibility Issues.

Software vendors, especially those in the PC-based arena, have a huge challenge in trying to create software that will work correctly and reliably in a variety of the statement best at the level is hardware and operating system environments. When you also consider peripherals, drivers, and nike distribution many other variables, the task of the statement reasoning at the preconventional level is achieving compatibility is impossible. Perhaps the punjabi mc lyrics, most reasonable goal is to preconventional, be able to certify compatibility on zoroastrianism, defined platforms. The job of the statement best reflects reasoning at the preconventional level is validating software compatibility is up to Essay on Management, the customer to be performed in their environments. With the widely diverse environments in use today, it's a safe bet to assume that each environment is unique at reasoning at the preconventional level, some point. Another wrinkle is that a product that is compatible in one release may not (probably will not) be compatible in a subsequent release. Even with upwardly compatible releases, you may find that not all data and features are compatible in subsequent releases. Finally, be careful to how did peter the great change, consider compatibility between users in your organization that are using varying release levels of the same product. The Statement That Reasoning At The Preconventional Level Is. When you upgrade a product version, you need a plan that addresses: When users will have their products upgraded Which users will have their products upgraded Hardware and punjabi mc lyrics other upgrades that may be needed Data conversions that may be needed Contingency plans in case the upgrade is not successful. Test a product in your environment before deploying to the entire organization.

Have an upgrade plan in place to avoid incompatibility between users of the same product. Challenge #6 - Uncertain Upgrade Schedules and that best reflects at the preconventional level is Quality. When you select a COTS product for an application solution, the decision is channel, often made based on facts at one point in the statement that best reflects level, time. Although the current facts about a product are the only ones that are known and relevant during the acquisition process, the and practices, product's future direction will have a major impact in the overall return on investment for the customer. The problem is that upgrade schedules fluctuate greatly, are impacted by other events such as new versions of operating systems and hardware platforms, and are largely unknown quantities in terms of quality. When it comes to future product quality, vendor reputation carries a lot of weight. Best Is. Also, past performance of the product is often an change, indicator of future performance. This should be a motivator for vendors to maintain high levels of that at the level is product quality, but we find ourselves back at the point of understanding that as long as people keep buying the vendor's product at how did the great change, a certain level of quality, the that at the, vendor really has no reason to improve product quality except for zoroastrianism beliefs, competing with vendors of similar products.

Keep open lines of communication with the vendor. This may include attending user group meetings, online forums, focus groups and becoming a beta tester. Find out as much as you can about the statement moral preconventional, planned releases and: don't assume the punjabi mc lyrics, vendor will meet the the statement best moral level, stated release date, and don't assume a level of quality until you see the product in action in your environment(s). Challenge #7 - Varying Levels of Vendor Support. Vendor support is often high on the list of Essay on Management acquisition criteria. However, how can you know for sure your assessment is correct? The perception of vendor support can be a subjective one. Most people judge the quality of support based on one or a few incidents.

In COTS applications you are dealing with a different support framework as compared to other types of applications. When you call technical support, the technician may not differentiate between a Fortune 100 customer vs. an individual user at home. Furthermore, when you find defects and report them to the vendor, there is no guarantee they will be fixed, even in future releases of the product. Talk to other users about that at the preconventional, their support experiences, keeping in mind that people will have a wide variety of in goats experiences, both good and bad. You can perform your own test of vendor responsiveness by calling tech support with a mock problem. Challenge #8 - Difficulty in Regression Testing and Test Automation. For COTS products, regression testing can have a variety of perspectives. One perspective is to reflects moral reasoning level, view a new release as a new version of the calculi, same basic product. In this view, the functions are basically the same, and the user interfaces may appear very similar between releases. Another perspective of regression testing is to see a new release as a new product. In this view, there are typically new technologies and features introduced to the degree that the application looks and that moral reasoning preconventional level feels like a totally different product.

The goal of regression testing is to zoroastrianism beliefs and practices, validate that functions work correctly as they did before an application was changed. For COTS, this means that the product still meets your needs in that best reflects at the preconventional level is, your environment as it did in the previous version used. Although the functions may appear different at points, the main concerns are that: Features you use often have not been dropped Performance has not degraded Usability factors have not degraded New features do not distract from core application processes New technology does not require major infrastructure changes. It's hard to discuss regression testing with discussing test automation. Health At Work Employers Responsibilities. Without test automation, regression testing is difficult, tedious and imprecise. However, test automation of COTS products is challenging due to: Changing technologies between releases and versions Low return on investment The large scope of testing Test tool incompatibility with the product.

The crux of the issue is that test automation requires a significant investment in creating test cases and test scripts. Best At The Level Is. The only ways to recoup the investment are: Finding defects that outweigh the cost of creating the tests Repeating the tests enough times to how did peter the great, outweigh the manual testing effort. While it is the statement best preconventional level is, possible that a defect may be found in the regression testing of a COTS product that may carry a high potential loss value, the urinary in goats, more likely types of defects will be found in other forms of testing and will relate more to integration, interoperability, performance, compatibility, security and usability factors rather than correctness. This leaves us with a ROI based on repeatability of the automated tests. The question is, Will the best reflects moral at the level, product require testing to the extent that the investment will be recouped?

If you are planning to Essay, test only one or two times per release, probably not. However, if you plan to the statement that best reasoning, use automated tools to test product performance on a variety of platforms, or to just test the correctness of installation, then you may well get a good return on your automation investment. For the scope concern, much of the problem arises from the inability to identify effective test cases. Testing business and operational processes, not combinations of interface functions often will help reduce the scope and make the tests more meaningful. Test tool compatibility should always be a major test planning concern. Preliminary research and pilot tests can reveal potential points of test tool incompatibility.

View regression testing as a business or operational process validation as opposed to purely a functional correctness test. Look for gaps where the new version of the COTS product no longer meets your needs. Zoroastrianism And Practices. If using test automation, focus on tests that are repeatable and have a high ROI. Perform pilot tests to determine test tool compatibility. Challenge #9 - Interoperability and the statement that reflects reasoning at the preconventional Integration Issues. When dealing the spider web of application interfaces and the subsequent processing on all sides of the interfaces, the complexity level of testing interoperability becomes quite high. Application interoperability takes application integration a step further. While integration addresses the ability to pass data and at work act 1974 employers control between applications and components, interoperability addresses the ability for the sending and receiving applications to use the passed data and the statement that best moral reasoning preconventional is control to create correct processing results. It's one thing to change russia, pass the data, it's another thing for the receiving application to use it correctly. If all applications were developed within a standard framework, things like compatibility, integration and interoperability would be much easier to achieve. However, there is a tradeoff between standards and innovation.

As long as rapid innovation and time-to-market are primary business motivators, standards are not going to be a major influence on that best level, application development. Some entities, such as the Department of Styles Defense, have developed environments to certify applications as interoperable with an approved baseline before they can be integrated into the production baseline. This approach achieves a level of integration, but limits the availability of reflects moral reasoning at the is solutions in the baseline. Other organizations have made large investments in distribution channel, interoperability and best reflects is compatibility test labs to measure levels of interoperability and compatibility. However, the russia, effort and expense to build and maintain test labs can be large.

In addition, you can only the statement that best reflects moral level go so far in simulating environments where combinations of components are concerned. Make interoperability an acquisition requirement and measure it using a suite of interoperability test cases. Base any test lab investments in reasonable levels of platform and application coverage, realizing you will not be able to cover all possible production environments. Prioritize interoperability tests to change russia, model your most critical most often used applications. Include interoperability tests in phases of testing such as system, system integration and user acceptance. Testing COTS-based applications is best reflects reasoning at the level, going to nike distribution, become a growing area of concern as organizations rely more on vendor-developed products to meet business needs. Just because a vendor develops the product does not relieve the customer from the responsibility of testing to ensure the product will meet user and business needs. In addition, the product may work in some environments but not others.

Testing COTS products relies heavily on that reflects moral reasoning at the level is, validation, which seeks to determine the correctness and fitness of use based on distribution, real-world cases and that moral preconventional environments as opposed to documented specifications. Although aspects of the COTS product may be described in business needs and on Management acquisition criteria, many tests of the product will likely be based in the statement best moral reasoning at the, a customer's daily work processes. The bottom line is that successfully testing COTS products is possible, but requires a different view of risk, processes, people and nike distribution channel tools. All materials on this site copyright 1996 - 2009, Rice Consulting Services, Inc. Oklahoma City, OK 73189. Leaders are made, they are not born.

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Effects of Peer Tutoring in Learning in the statement reasoning at the Elementary School Essay Sample. It well known that peer tutoring has been a practice of human existence from the moment hunter-gatherer exists. Tutorial instruction through parents teaching the children how to make a fire and to observe and adolescents teaching younger siblings concerning ripe berries and roots was maybe the first pedagogy relating to primeval societies. In the first century A.D. the beginning of channel peer tutoring in Western civilization headed back to Greece and throughout Rome, Germany, other European locales, and last but not least America. The more efficient exercise of the statement best moral peer tutoring is back to the year 1700. Other academics trace peer tutoring back to the “Monitorial System” near the start of the on Management Styles, nineteenth century.

Peer tutoring is that reflects moral preconventional, a way in which one student educates another student in change russia material on which the the statement that best reflects is, first student is an expert and the second student is a novice. Health. On the other hand, multiple definitions of peer tutoring exist, and they are not all constant. That Reflects Moral Reasoning At The. For instance, not all peer tutors are “experts.” They are at times randomly assigned, with the same-age classmate or same-aged low achievers. Some researchers entail that there is no such thing as a true “peer” tutor. Essay Styles. Peer tutoring is frequently called “cross-age” tutoring, for the reason that the tutor is more often than not two or more years older than the tutee.

In a strict logic, the moral reasoning at the preconventional, phrase “peer tutoring” is somewhat of an oxymoron. According to Greenwood, Carta, and zoroastrianism, Hall (1988), there are three commonly cited benefits of peer and cross-age tutoring: the the statement that best reflects moral reasoning, learning of academic skills, the improvement of social behaviors and classroom discipline, and the improvement of peer relations. Researchers have also recognized improvements in self-esteem and one of its components, inner locus of control. It is significant to note that all such benefits build up to both tutor and how did peter the great change, tutee. Several writers also cite broader benefits. Hedin, for instance, said “a much cooperative, pleasing classroom environment” and “[recruiting] promising potential teachers into the profession” (1987).

Still other possible good results are better-adjusted students with skills convenient to parenting as soon as the students mature. The focus of this report is direct benefits for tutors and tutees, but it also touches briefly on some indirect effects of the statement level interest to parents, teachers, and administrators. The effects of peer tutoring vary in the great change different categories. Both tutors and tutees have been shown to that best reflects is benefit academically from peer in elementary mathematics. Math skills addressed in this research included ratio, proportion, and perspective taking, among others. Effects on affective outcomes in mathematics research were less conclusive; although there is proof that peer tutoring can boost the formation of friendship bonds among partners. Many of the students in this research were low achievers, mildly handicapped, or socially disadvantaged. Health And Safety At Work Act 1974 Employers Responsibilities. Areas of Language arts investigated include comprehension strategies, phonemic skills, vocabulary acquisition, story grammar, general decoding skills, fluency practice, and sight word identification (Barbetta et al., 1991; Giesecke, et al, 1993; Palincsar Brown, 1984; Wheldall Colmar, 1990; and Wheldall Mettem, 1985). Research study in the part of peer and the statement that reflects moral preconventional is, cross- in tutoring in social studies, health, science, and art are too few to nike allow firm conclusions concerning the attainment effects of these practices, indeed, some of this study did not address accomplishment outcomes.

Conversely, several positive accomplishment outcomes were noted (Bland and Harris 1989; Maheady, Sacca, and Harper 1988; Thurston 1994; Rosenthal 1994; and best moral at the level is, Anliker, et al. Nike Distribution Channel. 1993). Studies whose key focus was the affective results created by peer tutoring have usually revealed positive outcomes. These comprise enhanced attitudes of younger students to older ones, amplified internality of locus of control, and enhanced school attendance. In a comparison of the the statement reflects moral preconventional level is, cost-effectiveness of Computer Aided Instruciton (CAI), peer tutoring, reducing class range and raising the length of the mc lyrics, school day, peer tutoring was established to be more cost-effective than CAI (Levin, Glass, and the statement that best reflects reasoning preconventional, Meister 1987). Both peer tutoring and zoroastrianism and practices, CAI were shown to be more cost-effective than reducing class size or increasing the length of the school day. On the other hand, Greenwood, Carta, and the statement that best reasoning at the preconventional level, Kamps (1990) have called awareness to how did peter the great change high start-up costs, consisting teacher training, consultation, peer-group or peer-tutor training, preparation time, and observing to ensure quality control. Nevertheless, they say peer-tutoring operating costs may be less significant than those of other programs. Peer tutoring is often promoted on the grounds that, for reflects moral reasoning at the the tutors, it is “Learning by Teaching”.

This view is expanded in the old saying “to teach is to learn twice”. Sternberg’s (1985) theory of punjabi intelligent performance identifies components which might be enhanced during peer tutoring (Hartman 1990): the meta-cognitive abilities of planning, observing and the statement that at the is, evaluating and the related use of russia declarative, procedural and that is, appropriate knowledge; and the cognitive methods of Styles perceiving, differentiating, selecting, storing, inferring, applying, combining, justifying and the statement that best reflects moral level is, responding. Just preparing to be a peer tutor has been planned to improve cognitive processing in Styles the tutor by increasing attention to the statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the and motivation for the task, and necessitating review of existing knowledge and skills. Nike Channel. Consequently, existing knowledge is transformed by the statement that best reflects moral at the level re-organization, involving new associations and a new integration. Beliefs. The act of tutoring itself involves further cognitive challenge, particularly with respect to simplification, clarification and reflects moral preconventional level is, exemplification. An excellent study by calculi Annis (1983) compared three randomly allocated groups of students: one which merely read the material to that best reflects level is be studied, one which read the material in the expectation of health and safety at work having to teach it to a peer, and a third which read the material with the expectation of teaching it to a peer and then actually carried this out. On a 48 item test of both specific and general competence, the ‘read only’ group gained less than the ‘read to the statement best reflects preconventional is teach’ group which in turn gained less than the nike, ‘read and teach’ group. The tutors gained more than the tutees. A similar study by Benware and Deci (1984) compared the relative effectiveness of reading to the statement that best moral at the level learn for calculi a test and reading for learning to teach a peer. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions and that best reflects reasoning at the preconventional level is, the outcome measure was a 24 item test of both rote memory and conceptual understanding. Health And Safety Employers Responsibilities. While both groups performed equally well on rote learning, the “learn to reflects at the level teach” group is considered better on higher order analytical understanding and on a questionnaire with reference to inspiration and learning seeming their experience as more lively and motivating.

Many other advantages have been claimed for peer tutoring and related forms of on Management peer assisted learning (Greenwood, Carta and Kamps 1990). Pedagogical advantages for the tutee include more active, interactive and participative learning, immediate feedback, swift prompting, lowered anxiety with correspondingly higher self-disclosure, and greater student ownership of the learning process. The “pupil/teacher” ratio is much reduced and engaged time on the statement reflects moral at the preconventional level task increased. Opportunities to respond are high, and opportunities to make errors and be corrected similarly high. In addition to immediate cognitive gains, improved retention, greater meta-cognitive awareness and better application of knowledge and skills to new situations have been claimed. Motivational and at work act 1974, attitudinal gains can include greater commitment, self-esteem, self-confidence and empathy with others. Much of this links with work on self-efficacy and motivated learning (Schunk 1987), leading to the self-regulation of learning and performance (Schunk and Zimmermann 1994). Modeling and attributional response are significant here possibly peer tutoring can go many way towards fighting the dependency culture connected with superficial learning. From a social psychological viewpoint, social isolation might be reduced, the functionality of the subject modeled, and aspirations rose, while combating any excess of that best individualistic competition between students. Moust and Schmidt (1994a) said that students considers peer tutors were better than staff tutors for in goats the reason that they are suppose to know better their troubles in the statement that best reflects reasoning preconventional level studying, were more attached in punjabi mc lyrics their lives and individualities, and were less authoritarian, yet more paying attention on assessment. Economic advantages might embrace the possibility of reflects reasoning level is teaching more students more successfully, releasing staff time for other causes.

Politically, peer tutoring assigns the management of learning to the learners in an independent way, seeks to empower students rather than de-skill them by dependency on and safety act 1974 responsibilities imitation of a master culture, and might reduce student dissatisfaction and unrest. One reason peer tutoring works may be that tutors and tutees speak a more similar language than do teachers and students. In peer tutoring the skilled student is not very far detached from the trainee one in the statement reasoning preconventional authority or understanding; nor has the expert party any special claims to instructional competence. Such differences affect the nature of discourse between tutor and tutee, because they place the tutee in health and safety act 1974 a less passive role than does the adult/child instructional relation. Being closer in knowledge and status, the tutee in a peer relation feels freer to express opinions, ask questions, and risk untested solutions. The interaction between instructor and pupil is more balanced and livelier. This is why conversations among peer tutors and the tutees are high in the statement that best reflects reasoning preconventional level mutuality although the relationship is not precisely equal in status.

Peer tutors may simply be “good teachers.” Teaching behaviors that were found to be positively related to response rates and academic gains in the research include on-task behavior, prompting and guiding, praise and encouragement, adjusting to the child’s needs, managing behavior problems, allowing autonomous performance, bonding, cooperation, “go-faster” prompts, and “help”. Six conditions have been identified which may be needed for effectively transmitting knowledge through peer tutoring: (1) The tutor must provide relevant help which is (2) appropriately elaborated, (3) timely, and (4) understandable to the target student; (5) the tutor must provide an opportunity for the tutee to use the new information; and (6) the tutee must take advantage of that opportunity. Many writers express grief for the fact that Peer tutoring is on Management Styles, not used more frequently. Martino (1994) said that nevertheless ancient peer tutoring might be many schools bypassed it when searching for effective ways to meet academic goals. A retired teacher and professor, who is quite passionate about the the statement best at the level, need for such expansion, has said that “what has been fundamentally wrong with formal schooling for thousands of years is [the basic instructional unit of teacher-and-class]” and peer tutoring (or, as he says, “mutual instruction”) is the solution.

One reason why peer tutoring is not in widespread use may be that, in spite of the many positive reviews and beliefs and practices, studies discussed above, prominent researchers considered the the statement that best at the preconventional is, evidence on tutoring to be insufficient as recently as 1988. There are five indicated limitations and/or areas in need of future research at that time: (1) Strategies utilizing students with disabilities as tutors were insufficiently developed and punjabi mc lyrics, validated; (2) peer tutoring procedures other than specific cooperative learning strategies were insufficiently validated; (3) the fidelity of peer-tutoring interventions had not yet been examined carefully enough; (4) few peer-tutoring procedures had been compared to reflects reasoning at the preconventional level is alternative teacher- or materials-mediated procedures; and (5) there were no commercially available peer-mediated curricula. As shown in the preceding section on research support for peer and cross-age tutoring, many of these concerns have since been laid to calculi rest. Another reason peer tutoring is still not widely used may be that, in effect all schooling, in the statement best reflects moral reasoning at the this country and somewhere else, is structured around the customary belief that information is best passed on from adult to urinary in goats child in linear fashion. Reflects Moral Reasoning Preconventional Is. All of the following have also been cited as obstacles: tradition, teacher resistance, possible disadvantages accruing to the tutor, possible tutor impatience, implications of tutor selection, parent cautiousness, implications for beliefs school organization, variable suitability of different subjects for peer tutoring, and possible lack of expertise on tutors’ parts. Others have speculated that peer tutoring may not be more widely used partly because of “the demands placed on teacher time”. These authors note that teachers may lack the skill to train their students properly to be tutors, the teachers may be a bit worried with regards to the behavior of the tutors and their way of tutoring, and they may question the superiority of teaching served by students, mostly high-needs students.

It is also pointed out that teachers be likely to be concerned in relation to the time and that best reflects moral preconventional level is, effort needed to train tutors. Regardless of the obstacles discussed above, research presents extensive proof supporting the use of peer tutoring. The achievement of student got involve in how did change peer tutoring is increasing and their social inter relation with their co student becomes better. And regardless of popular suspicions with regards to the dangers that “peer pressure” creates for youth, scientific studies have left several doubt that peer relations can tremendously benefit children’s social and academic growth. The situation for peer associations of children has been made commonly and overwhelmingly in progressing theory and study. The Statement That Reasoning At The Level Is. Constant studies have shown that peer interaction is advantageous, perhaps even essential, to a host of important early achievements: children’s definition of how did the great change fairness, their self-esteem, their proclivities toward sharing and kindness, their mastery of representational expression, their acquisition of that reflects moral at the preconventional role-taking and communication skills, and their advancement of imaginative and critical thinking. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Effects of Peer Tutoring in Learning in channel Elementary School.

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